WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
?????????

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Aerobatics
  2. Aerobics
  3. Aeromodelling
  4. Aikido
  5. Air Racing
  6. Amateur wrestling
  7. American football
  8. Archery
  9. Artistic roller skating
  10. Badminton
  11. Ballooning
  12. Baseball
  13. Basketball
  14. Beach soccer
  15. Billiards
  16. Bobsleigh
  17. Bocce
  18. Bodybuilding
  19. Bowling
  20. Canoeing
  21. Cricket
  22. Croquet
  23. Cycling
  24. Cyclo-cross
  25. Darts
  26. Disabled sports
  27. Discus throw
  28. Diving
  29. Drag racing
  30. Eight ball
  31. Enduro
  32. Equestrianism
  33. Fandom
  34. Female sports
  35. Fencing
  36. Figure skating
  37. Football
  38. F1 Powerboat Racing
  39. Freestyle skiing
  40. Gliding
  41. Golf
  42. Grand Prix motorcycle racing
  43. Hammer throw
  44. Hang gliding
  45. High jump
  46. History of sport
  47. Human powered aircraft
  48. Hurdling
  49. Hydroplane racing
  50. Ice climbing
  51. Ice hockey
  52. Javelin throw
  53. Judo
  54. Ju-jitsu
  55. Jumping
  56. Karate
  57. Karting
  58. Kickboxing
  59. Kitesurfing
  60. Kung-fu
  61. List of professional sports leagues
  62. List of sports
  63. List of violent spectator incidents in sports
  64. Long-distance track event
  65. Long jump
  66. Marbles
  67. Middle distance track event
  68. Modern pentathlon
  69. Motocross
  70. Motorcycle sport
  71. Motorsports
  72. Mountain bicycling
  73. Mountaineering
  74. Multi-sport events
  75. Nationalism and sports
  76. National sport
  77. Olympic Games
  78. Parachuting
  79. Paragliding
  80. Parasailing
  81. Pelota
  82. Petanque
  83. Playboating
  84. Pole vault
  85. Polo
  86. Race walking
  87. Relay race
  88. Rink hockey
  89. Road bicycle racing
  90. Rock climbing
  91. Rowing
  92. Rugby football
  93. Rugby league
  94. Rugby Union
  95. Running
  96. Sailing
  97. Scuba diving
  98. Shooting sports
  99. Skateboarding
  100. Ski jumping
  101. Skittles
  102. Slalom canoeing
  103. Snooker
  104. Snowboarding
  105. Sport
  106. Sport in film
  107. Sports acrobatics
  108. Sports attendances
  109. Sports broadcasting
  110. Sports club
  111. Sports coaching
  112. Sports injuries
  113. Sports marketing
  114. Sprints
  115. Steeplechase
  116. Sumo
  117. Surfing
  118. Swimming
  119. Table football
  120. Table tennis
  121. Taekwondo
  122. Tai Chi Chuan
  123. Team handball
  124. Tennis
  125. Toboggan
  126. Track cycling
  127. Triathlon
  128. Triple jump
  129. Tug of war
  130. Underwater rugby
  131. Volleyball
  132. Water polo
  133. Water skiing
  134. Windsurfing

 



SPORTS
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marbles

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Marbles

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Hand-made marbles from West Africa
Hand-made marbles from West Africa
Different glass marbles from a glass-mill
Different glass marbles from a glass-mill

Marbles is a class of children's games played with glass, clay, or agate balls usually about inch (1.25 cm) across. However, they may range from less than inch (0.635 cm) to over 3 inches (7.75 cm), while some art glass marbles for display purposes are over 12 inches (30 cm) wide. Marbles are often collected, both for nostalgia and for their aesthetic appeal.

History

Marbles were originally made from clay or marble, hence their name.

Marbles are often mentioned in Roman literature, and there are many examples of marbles from ancient Egypt. They were commonly made of stone, metal, or glass until the 18th century, when ceramic marbles become more common.

Ceramic marbles entered inexpensive mass production in the 1870s.

Glass marbles entered mass production in the early 20th century, when World War I cut off their importation from Europe, causing American innovation to be applied to the task, producing a mechanized method of glass marble production which became the most common system in the world. Glass marbles, too, became the most popular variety, and have remained so to this day.

In some developing countries children use steel balls as a less pricey marble substitute.

Gameplay

One version of the game involves drawing a circle in sand, and players will take turns knocking other players' marbles out of the circle with their own. This game is called ringer. Other versions involve shooting marbles at target marbles or into holes in the ground. A larger-scale game of marbles might involve taking turns trying to hit an opponent's marble to win. A useful strategy is to throw a marble so that it lands in a protected or difficult location should it miss the target. As with many children's games, new rules are devised all the time, and each group is likely to have its own version, often customised to the environment.

One such specialized game is called gaipar, popular in Bengal. Each player contributes four marbles, which are positioned on the edge of a rectangle. One special marble (the gai) is placed in the center. Players take turns to hit the marbles on the rectangle with a bigger marble (often called a boulder or matris). The marbles hit by the matris must be propelled out of the rectangle. If they are hit but remain within the rectangle, the player plays one more marble as a forfeit which is placed within the rectangle. The aim of the game is to hit the central gai and take it out of the rectangle. This is not easy when there are marbles on the periphery. If a player can take out the gai, he wins all the marbles. However, other players then get a chance to hit the gai-taker's boulder and, if successful, all the marbles change ownership.

Yet another specialized version of the game (as played in Taiwan) involves a five-holed course and can be played by two to six players. This version is typically played on a flat hard-packed clay surface. Five divots, approximately 2 cm deep and 4 to 5 cm wide, are excavated in the four corners of a 1.5m by 1.5m square. The fifth divot is excavated in the center of the square where the square's diagonals intersect. The players each begin with one marble and a series of games of "paper-stone-scissors" determines the starting order of the players. The beginning player starts at one of the holes in the corner of the square and this hole becomes the designated "home" hole for the remainder of the game. The first player shoots for the center hole. If he or she successfully shoots his or her marble into the center hole (videlicet the marble comes to rest in the hole without bouncing out), then he or she gets to shoot for the hole to the right. In the event of a miss, the next player in line gets to start and he or she also can proceed until a shot misses a hole. The idea is to shoot the marble from the home hole to center, from center to right, right back to center, center to left, left back to center, center to top, top back to center, and finally from center back to home. The first player to complete this course becomes the "ghost" and is at liberty to shoot at the other players' marbles as they attempt to complete the course. If the ghost successfully hits another player's marble, the ghost then wins that marble and the losing party removes the marble from play and surrenders the marble to the ghost immediately. Although the ghost wins the match immediately upon completing the course, the game is not over until all players have either completed the course or had their marbles removed from play by the ghost.

Terms

  • "Keepsies" (or "for keeps") is a variation in which players win the marbles used by their opponent.
  • Various names refer to the marbles' size. Any marble larger than the majority may be termed a boulder.
  • Marbles are also called by their colour.
  • Quitsies: Allows any opponent to stop the game without consequence. You can either have "quitsies" (able to quit) or "no quitsies" (unable to quit).
  • "Goli Gundu" is a Tamil term used to refer to both a game played with marbles, and the marbles themselves.
  • "Tawz" meaning to intentionally displace an opponent's shooting marble. Common usage "I'm gonna tawz you to Mars!"

Marble collecting

Some historic marbles
Some historic marbles

Marble collecting is a hobby enjoyed by thousands of people around the world. As with any collecting hobby a great deal of specialization occurs.

Marbles are categorized by many factors including condition, size, type, manufacturer/artisan, age, style, materials, scarcity, and the existence of original packaging (which is further rated in terms of condition). Each of these ratings is used to calculate the marble's worth, with the final value influenced by overall demand. Ugly but rare marbles may be valued as much as those of very fine quality.

As with any collectible toy, the value seems to first peak when the collectors with the fondest memories enjoy recalling their childhoods through their acquisitions [citation needed].

Due to a large market, there are many related side businesses that have sprung up such as numerous books and guides, web sites dedicated to live auctions of marbles only, and collector conventions. Additionally, many glass artisans produce marbles for the collectors' market only, with some selling for hundreds of dollars [citation needed].

Manufacture

Marbles are made using many techniques. They can be categorized into three general types: hand-made, machine-made, and semi-machine made.

Marbles were originally made by hand. Stone or ivory marbles can be fashioned by grinding. Clay, pottery, ceramic, or porcelain marbles can be made by rolling the material into a ball, and then letting dry, or firing, and then can be left natural, painted, or glazed. Glass marbles can be fashioned through the production of glass rods which are stacked together to form the desired pattern, cutting the rod into marble-sized pieces using marble scissors.

One mechanical technique is dropping globules of molten glass into a groove made by two interlocking parallel screws. As the screws rotate, the marble travels along them, gradually being shaped into a sphere as it cools. Colour can be added by dropping dyes onto the marbles while they are still liquid.

Early mechanical methods were similar to modern ones, but used as assistance in manual production rather than automated mass production. Marbles made in such a way are difficult to classify and generally grouped as "semi-machine-

External links

  • The American Toy Marble Museum
  • Marble King, Inc.
  • National Marbles Championship and National Marbles Hall of Fame
  • World Marbles Championship
  • Streetplay's pages on marbles
  • Introduction to marbles, with terms and rules
  • Marble Museum
  • World Marbles on Sand Championship
  • Virtual Marbles - The game of marbles on your PC!
  • Weber Glass- Unique Handmade marbles by Travis Weber
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marbles"