- Great Painters
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
- Concept Cars
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

- Education
- Masterpieces of English Literature
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
- Christmas Traditions
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables


  1. Atomic force microscope
  2. Atomic nanoscope
  3. Atom probe
  4. Ballistic conduction
  5. Bingel reaction
  6. Biomimetic
  7. Bio-nano generator
  8. Bionanotechnology
  9. Break junction
  10. Brownian motor
  11. Bulk micromachining
  12. Cantilever
  13. Carbon nanotube
  14. Carbyne
  15. CeNTech
  16. Chemical Compound Microarray
  17. Cluster
  18. Colloid
  19. Comb drive
  20. Computronium
  21. Coulomb blockade
  22. Diamondoids
  23. Dielectrophoresis
  24. Dip Pen Nanolithography
  25. DNA machine
  26. Ecophagy
  27. Electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope
  28. Electron beam lithography
  29. Electrospinning
  30. Engines of Creation
  31. Exponential assembly
  32. Femtotechnology
  33. Fermi point
  34. Fluctuation dissipation theorem
  35. Fluorescence interference contrast microscopy
  36. Fullerene
  37. Fungimol
  38. Gas cluster ion beam
  39. Grey goo
  40. Hacking Matter
  41. History of nanotechnology
  42. Hydrogen microsensor
  43. Inorganic nanotube
  44. Ion-beam sculpting
  45. Kelvin probe force microscope
  46. Lab-on-a-chip
  47. Langmuir-Blodgett film
  48. LifeChips
  49. List of nanoengineering topics
  50. List of nanotechnology applications
  51. List of nanotechnology topics
  52. Lotus effect
  53. Magnetic force microscope
  54. Magnetic resonance force microscopy
  55. Mechanochemistry
  56. Mechanosynthesis
  57. MEMS thermal actuator
  58. Mesotechnology
  59. Micro Contact Printing
  60. Microelectromechanical systems
  61. Microfluidics
  62. Micromachinery
  63. Molecular assembler
  64. Molecular engineering
  65. Molecular logic gate
  66. Molecular manufacturing
  67. Molecular motors
  68. Molecular recognition
  69. Molecule
  70. Nano-abacus
  71. Nanoart
  72. Nanobiotechnology
  73. Nanocar
  74. Nanochemistry
  75. Nanocomputer
  76. Nanocrystal
  77. Nanocrystalline silicon
  78. Nanocrystal solar cell
  79. Nanoelectrochemistry
  80. Nanoelectrode
  81. Nanoelectromechanical systems
  82. Nanoelectronics
  83. Nano-emissive display
  84. Nanoengineering
  85. Nanoethics
  86. Nanofactory
  87. Nanoimprint lithography
  88. Nanoionics
  89. Nanolithography
  90. Nanomanufacturing
  91. Nanomaterial based catalyst
  92. Nanomedicine
  93. Nanomorph
  94. Nanomotor
  95. Nano-optics
  96. Nanoparticle
  97. Nanoparticle tracking analysis
  98. Nanophotonics
  99. Nanopore
  100. Nanoprobe
  101. Nanoring
  102. Nanorobot
  103. Nanorod
  104. Nanoscale
  105. Nano-Science Center
  106. Nanosensor
  107. Nanoshell
  108. Nanosight
  109. Nanosocialism
  110. Nanostructure
  111. Nanotechnology
  112. Nanotechnology education
  113. Nanotechnology in fiction
  114. Nanotoxicity
  115. Nanotube
  116. Nanovid microscopy
  117. Nanowire
  118. National Nanotechnology Initiative
  119. Neowater
  120. Niemeyer-Dolan technique
  121. Ormosil
  122. Photolithography
  123. Picotechnology
  124. Programmable matter
  125. Quantum dot
  126. Quantum heterostructure
  127. Quantum point contact
  128. Quantum solvent
  129. Quantum well
  130. Quantum wire
  131. Richard Feynman
  132. Royal Society's nanotech report
  133. Scanning gate microscopy
  134. Scanning probe lithography
  135. Scanning probe microscopy
  136. Scanning tunneling microscope
  137. Scanning voltage microscopy
  138. Self-assembled monolayer
  139. Self-assembly
  140. Self reconfigurable
  141. Self-Reconfiguring Modular Robotics
  142. Self-replication
  143. Smart dust
  144. Smart material
  145. Soft lithography
  146. Spent nuclear fuel
  147. Spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy
  148. Stone Wales defect
  149. Supramolecular assembly
  150. Supramolecular chemistry
  151. Supramolecular electronics
  152. Surface micromachining
  153. Surface plasmon resonance
  154. Synthetic molecular motors
  155. Synthetic setae
  156. Tapping AFM
  157. There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom
  158. Transfersome
  159. Utility fog


This article is from:

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: 

Carbon nanotube

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes.
3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes.
This animation of a rotating Carbon nanotube shows its 3D structure.
This animation of a rotating Carbon nanotube shows its 3D structure.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an allotrope of carbon. They take the form of cylindrical carbon molecules and have novel properties that make them potentially useful in a wide variety of applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of materials science. They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient conductors of heat. Inorganic nanotubes have also been synthesized.

Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family, which also includes buckyballs. Whereas buckyballs are spherical in shape, a nanotube is cylindrical, with at least one end typically capped with a hemisphere of the buckyball structure. Their name is derived from their size, since the diameter of a nanotube is on the order of a few nanometers (approximately 50,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair), while they can be up to several millimeters in length. There are two main types of nanotubes: single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs).

The nature of the bonding of a nanotube is described by applied quantum chemistry, specifically, orbital hybridization. Nanotubes are composed entirely of sp2 bonds, similar to those of graphite. This bonding structure, which is stronger than the sp3 bonds found in diamond, provides the molecules with their unique strength. Nanotubes naturally align themselves into "ropes" held together by Van der Waals forces. Under high pressure, nanotubes can merge together, trading some sp2 bonds for sp3 bonds, giving great possibility for producing strong, unlimited-length wires through high-pressure nanotube linking.[1]


See also: Timeline of carbon nanotubes

In 1952 Radushkevich and Lukyanovich published clear images of 50 nanometer diameter tubes made of carbon in the Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry. This discovery was largely unnoticed, the article was published in the Russian language, and Western scientists' access to Russian press was limited during the Cold War. It is likely that carbon nanotubes were produced before this date, but the invention of the transmission electron microscope allowed the direct visualization of these structures.

A 2006 editorial written by Marc Monthioux and Vladimir Kuznetsov in the journal Carbon[2] has described the interesting and often misstated origin of the carbon nanotube. A large percentage of academic and popular literature attributes the discovery of hollow, nanometer sized tubes composed of graphitic carbon to Sumio Iijima of NEC in 1991.

Iijima's discovery of carbon nanotubes in the insoluble material of arc-burned graphite rods[3] created the buzz that is now associated with carbon nanotubes. Nanotube research accelerated greatly following the independent discoveries[4][5] by Bethune at IBM[6] and Iijima at NEC of single-wall carbon nanotubes and methods to specifically produce them by adding transition-metal catalysts to the carbon in an arc discharge. The arc discharge technique was well-known to produce the famed Buckminster fullerene on a preparative scale,[7] and these results appeared to extend the run of accidental discoveries relating to fullerenes. The original observation of fullerenes in mass spectrometry was not anticipated,[8] and the first mass-production technique by Kratchmer and Huffman was used for several years before realising that it produced fullerenes.[9]

It seemed fitting that nanotubes were serendipitously discovered. However, a paper by Oberlin, Endo, and Koyama published in 1976 clearly showed hollow carbon fibres with nanometer-scale diameters using a vapour-growth technique.[10] In 1987, Howard G. Tennent of Hyperion Catalysis was issued a U.S. patent for the production of "cylindrical discrete carbon fibrils" with a "constant diameter between about 3.5 and about 70 nanometers…, length 10² times the diameter, and an outer region of multiple essentially continuous layers of ordered carbon atoms and a distinct inner core…."[11] More recently, Endo has been credited with discovering CNTs, and Iijima has been credited for elucidating the structure of NTs.

Types of carbon nanotubes


The (n,m) nanotube naming scheme can be thought of as a vector (Ch) in an infinite graphene sheet that describes how to "roll up" the graphene sheet to make the nanotube. T denotes the tube axis, and a1 and a2 are the unit vectors of graphene in real space.
The (n,m) nanotube naming scheme can be thought of as a vector (Ch) in an infinite graphene sheet that describes how to "roll up" the graphene sheet to make the nanotube. T denotes the tube axis, and a1 and a2 are the unit vectors of graphene in real space.

Most single-walled nanotubes (SWNT) have a diameter of close to 1 nanometer, with a tube length that can be many thousands of times larger. Single-walled nanotubes with length up to orders of centimeters have been produced [12]. The structure of a SWNT can be conceptualized by wrapping a one-atom-thick layer of graphite called graphene into a seamless cylinder. The way the graphene sheet is wrapped is represented by a pair of indices (n,m) called the chiral vector. The integers n and m denote the number of unit vectors along two directions in the honeycomb crystal lattice of graphene. If m=0, the nanotubes are called "zigzag". If n=m, the nanotubes are called "armchair". Otherwise, they are called "chiral".

Single-walled nanotubes are a very important variety of carbon nanotube because they exhibit important electric properties that are not shared by the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) variants. Single-walled nanotubes are the most likely candidate for miniaturizing electronics past the micro electromechanical scale that is currently the basis of modern electronics. The most basic building block of these systems is the electric wire, and SWNTs can be excellent conductors[13]. One useful application of SWNTs is in the development of the first intramolecular field effect transistors (FETs). The production of the first intramolecular logic gate using SWNT FETs has recently become possible as well[14]. To create a logic gate you must have both a p-FET and an n-FET. Because SWNTs are p-FETs when exposed to oxygen and n-FETs when unexposed to oxygen, they were able to protect half of a SWNT from oxygen exposure, while exposing the other half to oxygen. The result was a single SWNT that acted as a NOT logic gate with both p and n-type FETs within the same molecule.

Single-walled nanotubes are still very expensive to produce, and the development of more affordable synthesis techniques is vital to the future of carbon nanotechnology. If cheaper means of synthesis cannot be discovered, it would make it financially impossible to apply this technology to commercial-scale applications.[15]


Multiwalled nanotubes (MWNT) consist of multiple layers of graphite rolled in on themselves to form a tube shape. There are two models which can be used to describe the structures of multiwalled nanotubes. In the Russian Doll model, sheets of graphite are arranged in concentric cylinders, eg a (0,8) single-walled nanotube (SWNT) within a larger (0,10) single-walled nanotube. In the Parchment model, a single sheet of graphite is rolled in around itself, resembling a scroll of parchment or a rolled up newspaper. The interlayer distance is close to the distance between graphene layers in graphite. The special place of Double-walled Carbon Nanotubes (DWNT) must be emphasized here because they combine very similar morphology and properties as compared to SWNT, while improving significantly their chemical resistance. This is especially important when functionalisation is required (this means grafting of chemical functions at the surface of the nanotubes) to add new properties to the CNT. In the case of SWNT, covalent functionalisation will break some C=C double bonds, leaving "holes" in the structure on the nanotube and thus modifying both its mechanical and electrical properties. In the case of DWNT, only the outer wall is modified. DWNT synthesis on the gram-scale was first proposed in 2003[16] by the CCVD technique, from the selective reduction of oxides solid solutions in methane and hydrogen.


See also: Ultrahard fullerite

A fullerite is a highly incompressible nanotube form. Polymerized single walled nanotubes (P-SWNT) are a class of fullerites and are comparable to diamond in terms of hardness. However, due to the way that nanotubes intertwine, P-SWNTs don't have the corresponding crystal lattice that makes it possible to cut diamonds neatly. This same structure results in a less brittle material, as any impact that the structure sustains is spread out throughout the material.


A nanotorus is a carbon nanotube bent into a torus (donut shape). Nanotori have many unique properties, such as magnetic moments 1000 times larger than previously expected for certain specific radii.[17] Many properties such as magnetic moment, thermal stability, etc. vary widely depending on radius of the torus and radius of the tube.[18]



Carbon nanotubes are one of the strongest and stiffest materials known, in terms of tensile strength and elastic modulus respectively. This strength results from the covalent sp2 bonds formed between the individual carbon atoms. In 2000, a multi-walled carbon nanotube was tested to have a tensile strength of 63 GPa.[19] In comparison, high-carbon steel has a tensile strength of approximately 1.2 GPa. CNTs have very high elastic modulus, on the order of 1 TPa.[20] Since carbon nanotubes have a low density for a solid of 1.3-1.4 g/m³[21], its specific strength is the best of known materials.

Under excessive tensile strain, the tubes will undergo plastic deformation, which means the deformation is permanent. This deformation begins at strains of approximately 5% [22] and can increase the maximum strain the tube undergoes before fracture by releasing strain energy.

CNTs are not nearly as strong under compression. Because of their hollow structure and high aspect ratio, they tend to undergo buckling when placed under compressive, torsional or bending stress.


Multiwalled carbon nanotubes, multiple concentric nanotubes precisely nested within one another, exhibit a striking telescoping property whereby an inner nanotube core may slide, almost without friction, within its outer nanotube shell thus creating an atomically perfect linear or rotational bearing.[23][24] This is one of the first true examples of molecular nanotechnology, the precise positioning of atoms to create useful machines. Already this property has been utilized to create the world's smallest rotational motor[25] and a nanorheostat.[26] Future applications such as a gigahertz mechanical oscillator are also envisaged.[27]


See also: Fermi point

Because of the symmetry and unique electronic structure of graphene, the structure of a nanotube strongly affects its electrical properties. For a given (n,m) nanotube, if 2n + m=3q (where q is an integer), then the nanotube is metallic, otherwise the nanotube is a semiconductor. Thus all armchair (n=m) nanotubes are metallic, and nanotubes (5,0), (6,4), (9,1), etc. are semiconducting. In theory, metallic nanotubes can have an electrical current density more than 1,000 times greater than metals such as silver and copper[28].


All nanotubes are expected to be very good thermal conductors along the tube, exhibiting a property known as "ballistic conduction," but good insulators laterally to the tube axis. It is predicted that carbon nanotubes will be able to transmit up to 6000 watts per meter per kelvin at room temperature; compare this to copper, a metal well-known for its good thermal conductivity, which only transmits 385 W/m/K. The temperature stability of carbon nanotubes is estimated to be up to 2800 degrees Celsius in vacuum and about 750 degrees Celsius in air.[29]


As with any material, the existence of defects affects the material properties. Defects can occur in the form of atomic vacancies. High levels of such defects can lower the tensile strength by up to 85%.[30] Another well-known form of defect that occurs in carbon nanotubes is known as the Stone Wales defect, which creates a pentagon and heptagon pair by rearrangement of the bonds. Because of the almost one-dimensional structure of CNTs, the tensile strength of the tube is dependent on the weakest segment of it in a similar manner to a chain, where a defect in a single link diminishes the strength of the entire chain.

The tube's electrical properties are also affected by the presence of defects. A common result is the lowered conductivity through the defective region of the tube. Some defect formation in armchair-type tubes (which are metallic) can cause the region surrounding that defect to become semiconducting. Furthermore single monoatomic vacancies induce magnetic properties.

The tube's thermal properties are heavily affected by defects. Such defects lead to phonon scattering, which in turn increases the relaxation rate of the phonons. This reduces the mean free path, and reduces the thermal conductivity of nanotube structures.


Techniques have been developed to produce nanotubes in sizeable quantities, including arc discharge, laser ablation, high pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco), and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Most of these processes take place in vacuum or with process gases. CVD growth of CNTs can take place in vacuum or at atmospheric pressure. Large quantities of nanotubes can be synthesized by these methods; advances in catalysis and continuous growth processes are making CNTs more commercially viable.

It is now thought by some[citation needed] that the catalysts or methods involved in forging damascus steel (a forging technique lost to time) holds the secret for manufacturing nanotubes cheaply, after they were recently discovered to be a component of that ancient sword metal.

Arc discharge

Nanotubes were observed in 1991 in the carbon soot of graphite electrodes during an arc discharge, by using a current of 100 amps, that was intended to produce fullerenes[31]. However the first macroscopic production of carbon nanotubes was made in 1992 by two researchers at NEC's Fundamental Research Laboratory. The method used was the same as in 1991. During this process, the carbon contained in the negative electrode sublimates because of the high temperatures caused by the discharge. Because nanotubes were initially discovered using this technique, it has been the most widely used method of nanotube synthesis.

The yield for this method is up to 30 percent by weight and it produces both single- and multiwall nanotubes, however they are quite short (50 microns).[32]

Laser ablation

In the laser ablation process, a pulsed laser vaporizes a graphite target in a high temperature reactor while an inert gas is bled into the chamber. The nanotubes develop on the cooler surfaces of the reactor, as the vaporized carbon condenses. A water-cooled surface may be included in the system to collect the nanotubes.

It was invented by Richard Smalley and co-workers at Rice University, who at the time of the discovery of carbon nanotubes, were blasting metals with the laser to produce various metal molecules. When they heard of the discovery they substituted the metals with graphite to create carbon nanotubes.

This method has a yield of around 70% and produces primarily single-walled carbon nanotubes with a controllable diameter determined by the reaction temperature. However, it is more expensive than either arc discharge or chemical vapor deposition.[33]

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

Nanotubes being grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition
Nanotubes being grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

The catalytic vapor phase deposition of carbon was first reported in 1959,[34] but it was not until 1993[35] that carbon nanotubes could be formed by this process.

During CVD, a substrate is prepared with a layer of metal catalyst particles, most commonly nickel, cobalt, iron, or a combination. The metal nanoparticles can also be produced by other ways, including reduction of oxides or oxides solid solutions. The diameters of the nanotubes that are to be grown are related to the size of the metal particles. This can be controlled by patterned (or masked) deposition of the metal, annealing, or by plasma etching of a metal layer. The substrate is heated to approximately 700°C. To initiate the growth of nanotubes, two gases are bled into the reactor: a process gas (such as ammonia, nitrogen, hydrogen, etc.) and a carbon-containing gas (such as acetylene, ethylene, ethanol, methane, etc.). Nanotubes grow at the sites of the metal catalyst; the carbon-containing gas is broken apart at the surface of the catalyst particle, and the carbon is transported to the edges of the particle, where it forms the nanotubes. This mechanism is still under discussion. The catalyst particles can stay at the tips of the growing nanotube during the growth process, or remain at the nanotube base, depending on the adhesion between the catalyst particle and the substrate.

If a plasma is generated by the application of a strong electric field during the growth process (plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition), then the nanotube growth will follow the direction of the electric field.[36] By properly adjusting the geometry of the reactor it is possible to synthesize vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (i.e., perpendicular to the substrate), a morphology that has been of interest to researchers interested in the electron emission from nanotubes. Without the plasma, the resulting nanotubes are often randomly oriented, resembling a bowl of spaghetti. Under certain reaction conditions, even in the absence of a plasma, closely spaced nanotubes will maintain a vertical growth direction resulting in a dense array of tubes resembling a carpet or forest.

Of the various means for nanotube synthesis, CVD shows the most promise for industrial scale deposition in terms of its price/unit ratio. There are additional advantages to the CVD synthesis of nanotubes. Unlike the above methods, CVD is capable of growing nanotubes directly on a desired substrate, whereas the nanotubes must be collected in the other growth techniques. The growth sites are controllable by careful deposition of the catalyst. Additionally, no other growth methods have been developed to produce vertically aligned nanotubes.

Recently, this area of synthesis has been advanced by a team of researchers at Rice University. The team, until recently led by the late Dr. Richard Smalley, has concentrated upon finding methods to produce large, pure amounts of particular types of nanotubes. Their approach grows long fibers from many small seeds cut from a single nanotube; all of the resulting fibers were found to be of the same diameter as the original nanotube and are expected to be of the same type as the original nanotube. Further characterization of the resulting nanotubes and improvements in yield and length of grown tubes are needed.[37]

Natural, incidental, and controlled flame environments

Fullerenes and carbon nanotubes are not necessarily products of high-tech laboratories; they are commonly formed in such mundane places as ordinary flames,[38] produced by burning methane,[39] ethylene,[40] and benzene,[41] and they have been found in soot from both indoor and outdoor air.[42] However, these naturally occurring varieties can be highly irregular in size and quality because the environment in which they are produced is often highly uncontrolled. Thus, although they can be used in some applications, they can lack in the high degree of uniformity necessary to meet many needs of both research and industry. Recent efforts have focused on producing more uniform carbon nanotubes in controlled flame environments.[43][44][45][46]

Potential, Current and Ancient Applications

Main article: Potential applications of carbon nanotubes

see also, for last current applications: Timeline of carbon nanotubes


The joining of two carbon nanotubes with different electrical properties to form a diode has been proposed.
The joining of two carbon nanotubes with different electrical properties to form a diode has been proposed.

The strength and flexibility of carbon nanotubes makes them of potential use in controlling other nanoscale structures, which suggests they will have an important role in nanotechnology engineering. The highest tensile strength an individual multi-walled carbon nanotube has been tested to be is 63 GPa.[47] Bulk nanotube materials may never achieve a tensile strength similar to that of individual tubes, but such composites may nevertheless yield strengths sufficient for many applications. Carbon nanotubes have already been used as composite fibers in polymers to improve the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of the bulk product. Carbon nanotubes have also recently been discovered to be a component of damascus steel (ancient swords made from it were reported to have been able to cut through stone and metal without losing their edge, and could still cut silk scarves in mid-air).


Because of the great mechanical properties of the carbon nanotubule, a variety of structures has been proposed ranging from everyday items like clothes and sports gear to combat jackets, space elevators and condoms. However, the space elevator will require further efforts in refining carbon nanotube technology, as the practical tensile strength of carbon nanotubes can still be greatly improved.[48].

For perspective, outstanding breakthroughs have already been made. Pioneering work lead by Ray H. Baughman at the NanoTech Institute has shown that single and multi-walled nanotubes can produce materials with toughness un-matched in the man-made and natural worlds.[49]

A good example of a practical use for the carbon nanotubules is the bicycle Floyd Landis used at the 2006 Tour de France. Carbon nanotubes were used to enhance the strength of the carbon fiber frame and made it possible to make a bicycle's frame weighing only one kilogram.[50]

In electrical circuits

Carbon nanotubes have many properties—from their unique dimensions to an unusual current conduction mechanism—that make them ideal components of electrical circuits.

Nanotube based transistors have been made that operate at room temperature and that are capable of digital switching using a single electron. [51]

One major obstacle to realization of nanotubes has been the lack of technology for mass production. However, in 2001 IBM researchers demonstrated how nanotube transistors can be grown in bulk, not very different from silicon transistors. The process they used is called "constructive destruction" which includes the automatic destruction of defective nanotubes on the wafer.[52]

This has since then been developed further and single-chip wafers with over ten billion correctly aligned nanotube junctions have been created. In addition it has been demonstrated that incorrectly aligned nanotubes can be removed automatically using standard lithography equipment.[53]

The first nanotube made integrated memory circuit was made in 2004. One of the main challenges have been regulating the conductivity of nanotubes. Depending on subtle surface features a nanotube may act as a plain conductor or as a semiconductor. A fully automated method has however been developed to remove non-semiconductor tubes. [54]

Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS)

Carbon nanotubes have also been implemented in nanoelectromechanical systems, including mechanical memory elements ("NRAM," under production by Nantero Inc.) and nanoscale electric motors (see Nanomotor).


  1. ^ Yildirim, T.; et al. (2000). "Pressure-induced interlinking of carbon nanotubes". Physical Review B 62: 19.
  2. ^
  3. ^ Sumio Iijima (1991), Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon, Nature 354, 56 - 58
  4. ^ D. S. Bethune et al. (1993), Cobalt-catalysed growth of carbon nanotubes with single-atomic-layer walls, Nature 363, 605 - 607
  5. ^ Sumio Iijama (1993, Single-shell carbon nanotubes of 1-nm diameter, Nature 363, 603 - 605
  6. ^
  7. ^ W. Krätschmer et al. (1990), Solid C60: a new form of carbon, Nature 347, 354 - 358
  8. ^ H. W. Kroto et al. (1985), C60: Buckminsterfullerene, Nature 318, 162-163
  9. ^ W. Krätschmer et al. (1990),Solid C60: a new form of carbon, Nature 347, 354-358
  10. ^ A. Oberlin, M. Endo, and T. Koyama, J. Cryst. Growth, 1976, 32, 335.
  11. ^
  12. ^ Zhu, et al. (2002)
  13. ^ Dekker, et al., (1999)
  14. ^ Derycke, et al., (2001)
  15. ^ Philip G. Collins and Phaedon Avouris (2000), Nanotubes for Electronics - Scientific American December 2000, page 67
  16. ^ Flahaut et. al (2003), Gram-Scale CCVD Synthesis of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, Chemical Communications, 1442-1443
  17. ^ Liu et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 217206)
  18. ^ Previous paper plus Computer Physics Communications 146 (2002), Maria Huhtala, Antti Kuronen, Kimmo Kaski
  19. ^ Min-Feng Yu et. al (2000), Strength and Breaking Mechanism of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Under Tensile Load, Science 287, 637-640
  20. ^
  21. ^ Philip G. Collins and Phaedon Avouris (2000), Nanotubes for Electronics - Scientific American December 2000, 69
  22. ^ Qian et al (2002)
  23. ^
  24. ^ John Curnings et al. (2000), Low-Friction Nanoscale Linear Bearing Realized from Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes, Science 289, 602-604
  25. ^ A. M. Fennimore et al. (2003), Rotational actuators based on carbon nanotubes, Nature 424, 408-410
  26. ^ John Curnings (2004), Localization and Nonlinear Resistance in Telescopically Extended Nanotubes, Physical Review Letters 93
  27. ^ John Curnings (2000), Nanotubes in the Fast Lane, Physical Review Letters 88
  28. ^ Philip G. Collins and Phaedon Avouris (2000), Nanotubes for Electronics - Scientific American December 2000, 68
  29. ^ Philip G. Collins and Phaedon Avouris (2000), Nanotubes for Electronics - Scientific American December 2000, 69
  30. ^ M. Sammalkorpi et al. (2004), Mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes with vacancies and related defects, Physical Review B
  31. ^ Sumio Iijima (1991), Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon, Nature 354, 56 - 58
  32. ^ Philip G. Collins and Phaedon Avouris (2000), Nanotubes for Electronics - Scientific American December 2000, page 67
  33. ^ Philip G. Collins and Phaedon Avouris (2000), Nanotubes for Electronics - Scientific American December 2000, page 67
  34. ^ P. L. Walker Jr. et al., J. Phys. Chem. 63, 133 (1959).
  35. ^ M. José-Yacamán et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 657 (1993).
  36. ^ Z. F. Ren et al., Science 282, 1105 (1998).
  37. ^
  38. ^ J.M. Singer, J. Grumer, Proc. Combust. Inst. 7, 559 (1959).
  39. ^ Yuan, Liming; Kozo Saito, Chunxu Pan, F.A. Williams, and A.S. Gordon (2001). "Nanotubes from methane flames". Chemical physics letters 340: 237–241. DOI:10.1016/S0009-2614(01)00435-3.
  40. ^ Yuan, Liming; Kozo Saito, Wenchong Hu, and Zhi Chen (2001). "Ethylene flame synthesis of well-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes". Chemical physics letters 346: 23–28. DOI:10.1016/S0009-2614(01)00959-9.
  41. ^ Duan, H. M.; and J. T. McKinnon (1994). "Nanoclusters Produced in Flames". Journal of Physical Chemistry 98 (49): 12815–12818. DOI:10.1021/j100100a001.
  42. ^ Murr, L. E.; J.J. Bang, E.V. Esquivel, P.A. Guerrero, and D.A. Lopez (2004). "Carbon nanotubes, nanocrystal forms, and complex nanoparticle aggregates in common fuel-gas combustion sources and the ambient air". Journal of Nanoparticle Research 6: 241–251. DOI:10.1023/B:NANO.0000034651.91325.40.
  43. ^ R.L. Vander Wal, Combust. Flame 130 37-47 (2002).
  44. ^ A.V. Saveliev, W. Merchan-Merchan, L.A. Kennedy, Combust. Flame 135, 27-33 (2003).
  45. ^ M.J. Height, J.B. Howard, J.W. Tester, J.B. Vander Sande, Carbon 42, 2295-2307 (2004).
  46. ^ S. Sen, I.K. Puri, Nanotechnology 15, 264-268 (2004).
  47. ^ Min-Feng Yu et al. (2000), Strength and Breaking Mechanism of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Under Tensile Load, Science 287, 637-640
  48. ^ Philip G. Collins and Phaedon Avouris (2000), Nanotubes for Electronics, Scientific American (2000)
  49. ^ Zhang et al. Science (2005), 309(5738), 1215. and Dalton et al. Nature (2003), 423(6941), 703.
  50. ^ Visited 10-15-2006
  51. ^ Dekker, Postma et al (2001), Carbon Nanotube Single-Electron Transistors at Room Temperature - Science 293.5527 (July 6, 2001)
  52. ^ Avouris, Arnold, Collins Engineering Carbon Nanotubes and Nanotube Circuits Using Electrical Breakdown - Science 292.5517 (April 27, 2001):706-9
  53. ^ Kalaugher Scalable Interconnection and Integration of Nanowire Devices Without Registration Nano Letters 4.5 (2004):915-19
  54. ^ Tesng et alMonolithic Integration of Carbon Nanotube Devices with Silicon MOS Technology Nano Letters 4.1 (2004):123-127

External links and sources

  • New Scientist Special Report - a collection of nanotechnology articles, most on nanotubes
  • The stuff of dreams - CNET
  • The Nanotube site - Last updated 2006.09.17
  • Nanowerk - Information on carbon nanotubes
  • Animation of a (29,0) being struck by 10 sets of 9 Argon atoms at 10 eV each (opens in media player)
  • The wonderous World of Carbon Nanotubes (In .pdf format, good introduction to nanotube)
  • nanotube and nanotechnology news and information
  • Carbon - Super Stuff Educational interactive with narration and 3D-models of nanotube, diamond, graphite and coal.
  • Carbon nanotube on
  • Untangling and Dispersing of Carbon Nanotubes using Ultrasonics
  • Carbon nanotech may have given swords of Damascus their edge - Nature 2006
Retrieved from ""