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The Nintendo GameCube (ニンテンドーゲームキューブ, Nintendō GēmuKyūbu?, GCN) is Nintendo's fourth home video game console, belonging to the sixth generation era. The GameCube itself is the most compact and least expensive of the sixth generation era consoles. The GameCube was released on September 14, 2001 in Japan; November 18, 2001 in North America; May 3, 2002 in Europe; and May 17, 2002 in Australia.
In late 2006, it was superseded by the Wii.
The GameCube was unveiled on 24 August 2000, one day before Nintendo's SpaceWorld trade show. Shaped roughly like a cube, the console is available in a variety of colors, such as indigo, platinum, and black (also a limited edition Resident Evil 4 platinum and black game console). In Japan, the system is also available in Spice (orange), or in limited edition colors like Crystal White, Mint Green, Copper, and White with black pinstripes.
The Nintendo GameCube uses a proprietary storage medium, the Nintendo GameCube Game Disc, based on Matsushita's optical-disc technology; the discs are approximately 8 centimeters (3 1/8 inches) in diameter (considerably smaller than the 12 cm CDs or DVDs used in competitors' consoles), and have a capacity of approximately 1.5 gigabytes. Contrary to popular belief, GameCube discs are not physically read any differently from a standard DVD disc, but are encrypted with a key derived from the Burst Cutting Area, a 'bar code' unreadable by most DVD drives. This move was intended to prevent unauthorized copying of GCN titles, but was eventually cracked. By exploiting a flaw in Phantasy Star Online Episode I & II, users were able to connect their GameCubes to their PCs and run homebrew programming on the console.
The Nintendo GameCube does not have DVD or audio CD support, but Matsushita's Panasonic Q (described below), only available in Japan, does. Common reasons cited by Nintendo for using this format are to reduce copyright infringement, provide faster loading times, make the system cheaper by avoiding DVD-licensing fees, and allow smaller discs. The lack of DVD movie support was a double-edged sword; it did not appeal to the mass audience that turned to the PlayStation 2 and Xbox due to their built-in DVD support. A number of games with large amounts of audio or video were scaled down when ported to the GameCube. Despite the protection of a non-standard disc format (essentially a miniature DVD-ROM with non-standard sectors and filesystem formatting), a number of modchips such as the Qoob and ViperGC have been released that, when used in conjunction with a modified BIOS, allow the use of a standard or 8 cm DVD-R to load backed-up, homebrew, bootleg or copied software. The Panasonic Q, released by Panasonic in Japan under license from Nintendo, is manufactured as a modified GameCube unit with added DVD and audio CD playback functionality. It was never released outside of Japan; production ceased in December 2003. Differences in design make the Panasonic Q incompatible with the Game Boy Player. However, the Panasonic Q Game Boy Player was released to address the problem of the extended pegs on the bottom, allowing play of Game Boy games.
The GameCube can connect to a Game Boy Advance or Game Boy Advance SP to transfer game data. The GameCube can also connect to a Game Boy Micro, but the cable required to connect the two must be custom made since it has not been otherwise made available. Examples of this functionality include the use of the Game Boy Advance as a controller for the game played. Information related to game play may be displayed on the Game Boy Advance's color screen for added convenience or to avoid the cluttering of the display on the television screen. This functionality has been used to unlock bonuses such as new levels or characters when certain Game Boy Advance and GameCube games are connected together. Up to four Game Boy Advance systems can be connected to the GameCube through the GameCube's four controller ports for multiplayer play. A Nintendo GameCube-Game Boy Advance cable is required for each system that is connected to the GameCube. However, this required a user to buy a GameCube, a Game Boy Advance, and the GameCube version of the title, along with the Game Boy Advance version. This problem compounded with the requirement of specialized connection hardware to network the GameCube with the Game Boy Advance; in the end, such a laundry list of necessary purchases seemed to be a waste of money to many gamers, and the GameCube/Game Boy interaction system was widely regarded as a tremendous failure, especially when weighed against the wealthy and untapped market that Microsoft and Sony served with their online gaming services.
The GameCube can also connect directly to another GameCube for LAN play. Another television is needed for the second console. The Gamecube can connect over LAN with up to eight other GameCubes.
The GameCube was designed for portability, with its small size complemented by a carrying handle. However, this feature over other consoles was minimal since its inexpensive production and selling price were its main advantages. Despite being more compact than the original PlayStation 2 model (it was released over a year later and kept the power supply separate from the console), the GameCube has overall superior graphics processing power and better Pro Logic sound, but no optical output. The GameCube has a front end menu system which can be accessed by holding the 'A' button while the system boots or by booting with no game inserted. This menu controls settings for memory card data, sound, and the internal clock.
The controller has the traditional directional pad, two analog sticks, and eight buttons: A, B, X, Y, Z, L, R, and pause/start. Like the Nintendo 64 controller, it features no select button. The C buttons have been replaced by an analog C stick. The analog sticks do not have added "clickable" button functionality—unlike other such consoles of the era—but both L and R shoulder buttons are analog, able to detect pressure applied to them before "clicking," essentially doubling their functionality.
Nintendo released a network adapter for the GameCube during the Christmas season of 2002, but did not promote or support online gaming as heavily as Sony or Microsoft. Two adaptors were released: the Nintendo GameCube Modem Adapter for dial-up and the Nintendo GameCube Broadband Adapter for broadband. The only high-profile title that requires the adapter is Sega's Phantasy Star Online Episode I & II. Instead, Nintendo focused more on Game Boy Advance connectivity.
The GameCube launched in North America with the following twelve games:
The GameCube currently has over 700 games available in its library.
Key first-party titles
The Nintendo GameCube software library contains such traditional Nintendo series as Super Mario, The Legend of Zelda, and Metroid. Some of the more popular first-party titles include:
One of the defining aspects of the Nintendo GameCube is the rejuvenated relationship between Nintendo and its licensees. Unlike previous generations in which Nintendo was seen by some as bullying its third-party game developers, Nintendo openly sought game-development aid on the Nintendo GameCube. Sometimes, Nintendo would merely request that a third-party developer produce a game based on the third-party's own game franchises; other times, Nintendo would request that the third-party developer produce a game based on Nintendo's own game franchises. In both cases, Nintendo often took an active role in cooperating with the developer. This policy on Nintendo's part resulted in many exclusive third-party games for the Nintendo GameCube, and the arrival of multiformat titles on the platform. Because of these efforts, GameCube owners tend to support first-party games more heavily than third party games, whereas the reverse is true for PlayStation 2 and Xbox owners, as fewer high-quality first-party titles exist on those platforms.
Major second and third-party titles
Despite Nintendo's efforts, the GameCube was unsuccessful in recapturing the market share held by earlier consoles. One possible reason for this is that Nintendo's family-friendly franchises such as Pokémon skewed the GameCube toward a younger market , which now represents a minority of the gaming population (teenagers and adults represent more than half the gaming population). Many third-party games popular with teenagers or adults such as first-person shooters and the controversial Grand Theft Auto series skipped a GameCube port in favor of the PlayStation 2 and Xbox.
Also, due to Nintendo's lack of support for the online capabilities of the GameCube, as opposed to Microsoft and later Sony, who actively promoted online gaming by releasing first-party online titles and soliciting developers, many multiplatform games with online functionality were released offline-only on the GameCube. Although online support was added in late 2002 and both Sony and Nintendo followed a similar decentralized online model (in contrast to the centralized Xbox Live), lower sales of the GameCube versions of games during its launch year precluded developers from including online support. The 1.5 gigabyte proprietary disc format may have also been a limiting factor since Nintendo's rivals used the 8.5 gigabyte Dual Layer DVD. However, the Nintendo disc still had sufficient room for most games, although they tended to have less extra content or music tracks than other versions, and video and audio compression was more apparent.
The strong preference of GameCube owners for first-party titles has also put the system at odds with independent third party developers. Cross-platform games—such as sports franchises released by Electronic Arts—sold far below their PlayStation 2 and Xbox counterparts, prompting developers to scale back or completely cease support for the GameCube. After several years of losing money from developing for Nintendo's system, Eidos Interactive announced that it would end support for the GameCube, cancelling several titles that had been in development . Since then, however, Eidos has resumed development  of GameCube titles. Around that time, due to sagging sales, Nintendo had to cut GameCube production in order to sell off surpluses and issue a profit warning . Since then, sales have rebounded slightly due to a price drop to $99 USD and the release of the The Legend of Zelda: Collector's Edition bundle, which spurred sales. Since this period, GameCube sales have continued to be steady, particularly in Japan, but is still in third place in worldwide sales.
Despite the fact that the GameCube did not match the sales and market share of earlier Nintendo consoles, this has been offset by the growing size of the video game console market which has allowed Nintendo to carve out a loyal following even as its market share decreased. Its low price compared to the PS2 and Xbox kept it competitive. Nintendo has stated that it would "only exit the software business at the same time [it] would exit the hardware business"; Nintendo signaled that it would not discontinue its console business to focus on developing games like Sega had done after discontinuing the Dreamcast.
As of September 30, 2006, Nintendo has sold a total of 21 million Nintendo GameCube units worldwide, selling 4.02 million units in Japan, 12.44 million units in the Americas, and 4.75 million units elsewhere. This compares to 111.25 million PlayStation 2 units shipped and over 24 million Xbox units shipped. On December 1, 2006 Nintendo of America released launch-to-date information indicating that the Nintendo GameCube had sold 11.36 million units in the United States.
The GameCube's model numbers, DOL-001 and 101, are a reference to its "Dolphin" codename. All of its official accessories and peripherals have model numbers beginning with DOL as well. Also, many other Nintendo hardware after the Gamecube has its developers codename as a model number. Another Dolphin reference, "Flipper" is the name of the GPU for the GameCube.
Some benchmarks provided by third-party testing facilities indicate that some of these specifications, especially those relating to performance, may be conservative. One of Nintendo's primary objectives in designing the GameCube hardware was to overcome the perceived limitations and difficulties of programming for the N64 architecture, creating an affordable, well-balanced, developer-friendly console that still performs competitively against its rivals.
Central Processing Unit
485 MHz IBM "Gekko" PowerPC CPU.
- Hybrid PowerPC 750CXe/750FX.
- 180 nm IBM copper-wire process. 43-mm² die. 4.9 W dissipation.
- Roughly 50 new vector instructions.
- 32-bit ALU. 64-bit FPU, usable as 2x32-bit SIMD
- 64-bit enhanced PowerPC 60x front side bus to GPU/chipset. 162 MHz clock. 1.3 GB/s peak bandwidth.
- 64 KB L1 cache (32 KB I/32 KB D). 8-way associative. 256 KB on-die L2 cache. 2-way associative.
43 MB total non-unified RAM
- 24 MB MoSys 1T-SRAM (codenamed "Splash") main system RAM. 324 MHz, 64-bit bus. 2.7 GB/s bandwidth.
- 3 MB embedded 1T-SRAM within "Flipper".
- Split into 1 MB texture buffer and 2 MB frame buffer.
- 10.4 GB/s texture bandwidth (peak). 7.6 GB/s framebuffer bandwidth (peak). ~6.2 ns latency.
- 16 MB SDRAM "ARAM" used as buffer for DVD drive and audio. 81 MHz, 8-bit bus. 81 MB/s bandwidth.
Graphics Processing Unit and System Chipset
162 MHz "Flipper" LSI. 180 nm NEC EDRAM-compatible process. Co-developed by Nintendo and ArtX.
- 4 pixel pipelines with 1 texture unit each
- TEV "Texture EnVironment" engine (similar to "pixel shader") 
- Fixed-function hardware transform and lighting (T&L). 12+ million polygons/s in-game.
- 648 megapixels/second (162 MHz x 4 pipelines), 648 megatexels/second (648 MP x 1 texture units) (peak)
- 8 texture layers per pass, texture compression, full scene anti-aliasing
- Bilinear, trilinear, and anisotropic texture filtering
- Multi-texturing, bump mapping, reflection mapping, 24-bit z-buffer
- 24-bit RGB / RGBA color depth.
- Hardware limitations sometimes require a 6r+6g+6b+6a mode (18-bit color), resulting in color banding.
- 640×480 interlaced or progressive scan
- Integrated audio processor: Custom 81 MHz Macronix DSP
- Instruction Memory: 8 KB RAM, 8 KB ROM
- Data Memory: 8 KB RAM, 4 KB ROM
- 64 channels 16-bit 48 KHz ADPCM
- Dolby Pro Logic II, AC3 signal through "digital out" with D-Terminal cable
- For more details on this topic, see Nintendo GameCube Game Disc.
- Matsushita (2.000 MB/s-3.125 MB/s) CAV mini-DVD-like 8 cm optical disk. Avg access time 128 ms. 1.5 GB capacity.
- Memory cards of varying sizes for saved game storage.
The Nintendo GameCube Game Disc is the medium for the Nintendo GameCube, created by Matsushita. Chosen to prevent unauthorized copying and to avoid licensing fees to the DVD Consortium, it is Nintendo's first non-cartridge storage method. Some games which contain large amounts of voice acting or pre-rendered video (for example, Tales of Symphonia) have been released on two discs; however, fewer than two dozen titles have been released on two discs, and no games have required a third disc.
The GameCube can also accept Mini CD-ROM discs provided that they were formatted to the same protocols. Only third party items such as the Action Replay boot disc, FreeLoader, and Advance Game Port boot disc are mini CD-ROM's made by companies.
A common misconception about the GameCube optical drive is that it spins the discs in reverse (counter-clockwise) compared to regular DVD-ROM drives. The peculiarity of this rumor is that one need only open the disc tray on an operating GameCube to see that the disc clearly spins clockwise as it slows to a halt.
Some earlier and later revisions of the GameCube consoles developed disc read problems with the optical pickup becoming thermal sensitive over time, causing read errors when the console reached normal operating temperature. Failures of this sort require replacement of the optical pickup. Affected consoles had sometimes been serviced free of charge by Nintendo even after the expiration of the warranty period.
- 4 controller ports, 2 memory card slots
- A/V outputs: composite video, S-Video, component video (early DOL-001 models only), SCART, and stereo RCA analog audio.
- Resolutions: 480i, 576i, 480p
- High-speed Serial Ports: 2
- High-speed Parallel Ports: 1
- Power supply output: DC12 volts x 3.25 amperes
- Physical Measurements: 110 mm (H) x 150 mm (W) x 161 mm (D). [4.3"(H) x 5.9"(W) x 6.3"(D)]
The standard GameCube controller totals eight buttons, two analog sticks and a D-pad. The primary analog stick is on the left, with the D-pad below it. On the right are four buttons; a large green "A" button in the center, a smaller red "B" button to the left, an "X" button to the right and a "Y" button to the top. Below those, there is a yellow "C" stick, which often serves different functions, from controlling the camera, to one similar to that of the right analog stick on a DualShock 2 controller. The start/pause button is in the middle of the controller. On the top of the controller there are two analog shoulder buttons marked "L" and "R", as well as one digital one marked "Z". The "L" and "R" buttons have both digital and analog capabilities. If you push it down all the way, it registers it as digital.
The controller is a standard wing grip design, and was designed to fit well in one's hands. The L and R analog shoulder buttons, the main innovation, have an additional 'click' when fully depressed. This serves as two additional buttons on the controller without the need to actually add physical buttons. This works by means of a dual-sensor system inside the controller, a slider piece, which is moved by pressing down on the shoulder button and a separate button press pad at the base.
Like most analog controllers, the GameCube controller self-calibrates when the console is switched on, setting the current analog stick and L and R buttons' positions as "neutral," which may cause problems if the controls are not actually in their neutral position during calibration. Holding down X, Y and start/pause for three seconds at any time will recalibrate the controller. Unplugging and reconnecting the controller, and in the case of the wireless WaveBird controller, turning the controller off and back on, will also force a recalibration.
First-Party and Officially Licensed Accessories/peripherals
- Controller (Standard colors include Indigo, Black, Spice (Orange), Platinum and Indigo-clear). There are also many limited edition controllers available such as a split blue and red, with the Mario "M" logo replacing the regular GameCube logo seen on standard controllers (there have also been green and blue Luigi "L" controllers and similarly yellow and pale blue Wario "W" controller). There are also specially shaped controllers.
- WaveBird (RF wireless controller)
- Memory Card 59 (4Mb), 251 (16Mb) or 1019 (64Mb) blocks, with a maximum of 127 files can be stored on a single card
- Nintendo GameCube-Game Boy Advance cable (for games that support connectivity between the GameCube and the Game Boy Advance)
- Modem or Broadband adapter (for internet or LAN play) both of which connect to the Serial Port 1
- Game Boy Player (to play Game Boy games on the television, using either a GameCube controller or a connected Game Boy Advance) which connects to the Hi Speed Port
- Component video cable (for progressive scan (480p) support) which requires a GameCube with Digital Video Output. Less than one percent of GameCube owners used 480p; therefore the digital output was eventually removed from the design to reduce the system's manufacturing costs. (See System Specifications above and Official Information.)
- D-Terminal Video Cable - allows Progressive Scan mode to be enabled through a D-Terminal port on a TV. It was sold in Japan only. An analog A/V cable is still required for audio.
- RGB Cable - provides a better quality picture than composite cables. It utilizes the SCART connector standard and is sold in Europe only.
- S-Video Cable - provides a better quality picture than composite cables, although not up to that of the RGB Cable. Only NTSC Gamecubes could use the S-Video cable.
- VGA Adapter - allows GameCube play on a standard computer monitor. A game supporting 480p combined with the Component Video cable above, and the VD-Z3 (which has a monitor pass-through) can give progressive scan display quality on a computer monitor.
- In PAL regions, an RF cable for connection to older televisions.
- DK Bongos for use with the music games Donkey Konga, Donkey Konga 2 and Donkey Konga 3, the Donkey Kong platform title Donkey Kong Jungle Beat, and the soon-to-be released racing game DK Bongo Blast.
- Microphone, which plugs into memory card slot, for use with Mario Party 6, Mario Party 7, and Karaoke Revolution Party. Odama also includes a microphone clip to clip on to the controller. Commands are issued when you hold the X button on the controller.
- SD Card Adapter, for games exhibiting the SD Card logo like Animal Forest e+. This official Nintendo accessory is currently sold in Japan only.
- A dance pad, included with Dance Dance Revolution: Mario Mix. It has 4 arrows.
- A Beat Pad made by Mad Catz and officially licensed by Nintendo, included with the game MC Groovz Dance Craze. Also sold separately. It has 8 arrows.
- An ASCII keyboard controller, resembling a standard GameCube controller pad stretched to accommodate an alphanumeric keyboard in the center. The keyboard requires the use of two controller ports, and contains both Roman and Japanese hiragana characters. It is considered particularly useful for Phantasy Star Online Episode I & II and is difficult, though not impossible, to acquire outside of Japan. A cheaper and easier keyboard to import is made by Datel, although most people opt to purchase just an adapter so they can use their own PC keyboards.
- Hori Game Boy Player Controller - A controller designed to play with the Game Boy Player. It only came in the colors Indigo and Jet Black. The controller is in the shape of a Super Nintendo control pad. It does not include the Control Stick or C-Stick, and the R and L buttons lack a range of pressure sensitivity; thus, only uses the D-Pad for movement and the usual buttons for playing. They were released only in Japan, and are officially licensed Nintendo products. Although meant for the Game Boy Player, this pad can still be used with certain 2-D GameCube games, such as Alien Hominid or the Mega Man collections.
- Logitech Speed Force Racing Wheel - An officially licensed force feedback steering wheel made exclusively for the GameCube. It is supported by a number of games, including F-Zero GX, R: Racing Evolution, Mario Kart: Double Dash!, Burnout 2, and the Need for Speed series, among others. There is also an optional accessory pack which includes foot pedals and a lap attachment.
- ProDG, an officially licensed development tool for the GameCube. In a photo from the product's home page at , the cable appears to be protruding from the left side of the case where the Serial Port 2 should be. If this does connect to that port, this would be the only accessory known to do this.
Third party accessories/peripherals
- Action Replay - A cheat device made by Datel, allowing gamers to enter codes to cheat at games. A FreeLoader is also included with the software. It contains a boot disc with the codes and startup, and a dongle that connects into memory card slot B. The dongle could only be used for saving codes. It will also work on the Wii for Game Cube games.
- Action Replay MAX - An Action Replay with a bigger dongle. The dongle can not only save codes, but also can be used as a 64 Mb card with 1019 blocks. As with above, it will work in the Wii for Game Cube Games.
- FreeLoader - Made by Datel, this disc disables the regional lockout in the GameCube, allowing games from any region (PAL, NTSC, JNTSC, etc.) to be played on a console from any region. Will also work on the Wii in Game Cube mode.
- Advance Game Port - Datel's version of the Game Boy Player. This dongle would connect to memory card slot B and would be booted up with the included boot disc. Some models had code generators for built in cheat devices. The advantage was that no removal of plates on the bottom, nor tools, were needed to install it. There are a few problems with the audio and video framerate and was not 100% compatible with GBA games.
- Pelican Bongos - These bongos made by Pelican Accessories are a much darker color and have a 10% larger surface than the Nintendo bongos.
- MAX Drive - This device consists of a dongle, USB cable, and a PC software disc, which allows the user to upload game saves from a memory card to a PC to be stored there or sent over the Internet. However, there have been reports of this device corrupting save files, not always connecting to a PC, and sometimes refusing to receive information from the PC.
- Powerboard - A USB keyboard by Datel with a GameCube matching unit that could be used with the online Phantasy Star games. It could also be used to edit/add codes to the Action Replay.
- MAX Memory - This 128 Mb dongle by Datel contains up to 2043 blocks of data and is the largest memory card for the GameCube to date.
- Innovation INNOV3102 Controller Adaptor - This matching unit allows PlayStation and PS2 controllers to be used on the GameCube.
- Hais GameCube Smart Joy (HS2125C) - This adapter allows the connection of Playstation 1 and 2 controllers to be used on the GameCube.
- Controller Extension - An extension cable for the controller, allowing the user to be farther away from the GameCube.
- SD Media Launcher - Allows homebrew games to be played on the Game Cube. The dongle connects into the memory card slot and contains a removable SD card which holds the games. Also has a boot disc for starting the unit up, a 1GB SD card, and a USB SD card adaptor for uploading games from your PC to your Game Cube. Will also work on the Wii in Gamecube mode.
North American marketing
Nintendo has used several advertising strategies and techniques for the GameCube. The earliest commercials displayed a rotating cube video, which would quickly morph into the GameCube logo. A voice whispered "GameCube". This was usually after the normal commercial for a GameCube game. Later on, Nintendo incorporated a video clip before the normal clip for the GameCube game would begin, similar to the brief PlayStation 2 logo before a commercial featuring the game. It basically rotated around what appeared to be the top of a GameCube console, with the lettering being slightly 3D. The lettering would begin as a wave, only to settle on the top of the pictured console.
Subsequent ad campaigns had Nintendo advertising with a "Who Are You" tangent, essentially marketing the wide range of games Nintendo offers. The idea behind the "Who Are You?" campaign is that "you are what you play"; the kind of game a gamer enjoys playing suggests a dominant trait in that gamer's personality. The "Who Are You" logo is similar to graffiti lettering. Most of the "Who Are You?" commercials advertised games developed or published by Nintendo, but some developers paid Nintendo to promote their games, using Nintendo's marketing and advertising resources. One example is the advertisement campaign for Square Enix's GameCube-exclusive Final Fantasy game, Final Fantasy: Crystal Chronicles.
- US$199.99 (November 18, 2001, Launch Price) (CAD$299.99)
- US$149.99 (May 13, 2002) (CAD$229.99)
- US$99.99 (September 25, 2003) (CAD$129.99)
- JP¥25,000 yen (September 14, 2001 Launch Price)
- JP¥? (May 13, 2003)
- JP¥14,800 (September 25, 2003)
- GB£129.99 (May 3, 2002, Launch Price)
- GB£79.99 (Present)
- €199 (May 3, 2002, Launch Price)
- €99 (present)
- A$329.99 (May 17, 2002, Launch Price)
- A$149.99 ()
- A$99.99 (present)
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- ^ IGN Staff (2001-07-10). The Ultimate Gamecube FAQ. IGN. Retrieved on 2006-10-18.
- ^ How do I rip GC games?. AfterDawn Forums. AfterDawn. Retrieved on 2006-05-29.
- ^ Cumulative Production Shipments of Hardware / PlayStation®2. Sony Computer Entertainment.
- ^ Behrens, Matt (2006-12-01). Nintendo sales through end of November revealed. N-Sider. N-Sider Media. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Game Consoles: A Look Ahead, Ace's Hardware, December 14, 2003.
- ^ a b GCN Technical Specifications, Nintendo.com, accessed December 26, 2006.
- ^ The TEV on the Gamecube, Beyond3D forum, July, 2002.
- ^ a b c d Nintendo's GameCube Technical Overview, Dreamcast Technical Pages, accessed December 26, 2006.
- ^ News Archive For May 2001. News Archives. Super Mari 128 Central. Retrieved on 2006-12-03.
- List of GameCube network games
- List of Player's Choice games
- List of video games published by Nintendo
- Nintendo GameCube Official site by Nintendo of America
- 1UP.com: GameCube
- GNU/Linux on the Nintendo GameCube
- Dolby - Dolby's Guide to audio on the Nintendo GameCube
- The Hardware Book - hardware specs & connector pinouts