- Great Painters
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
- Concept Cars
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

- Education
- Masterpieces of English Literature
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
- Christmas Traditions
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables


  1. Accordion
  2. Acoustic bass guitar
  3. Aeolian harp
  4. Archlute
  5. Bagpipes
  6. Balalaika
  7. Bandoneon
  8. Banjo
  9. Baroque trumpet
  10. Bass drum
  11. Bassoon
  12. Bongo drums
  13. Bouzouki
  14. Brass band
  15. Brass instrument
  16. Bugle
  17. Carillon
  18. Castanet
  19. Celesta
  20. Cello
  21. Chapman Stick
  22. Chime tree
  23. Chordophone
  24. Cimbalom
  25. Clarinet
  26. Claves
  27. Clavichord
  28. Clavinet
  29. Concertina
  30. Conga
  31. Cornamuse
  32. Cornet
  33. Cornett
  34. Cowbell
  35. Crash cymbal
  36. Crotales
  37. Cymbal
  38. Digital piano
  39. Disklavier
  40. Double bass
  41. Drum
  42. Drum kit
  43. Drum machine
  44. Drum stick
  45. Electric bass
  46. Electric guitar
  47. Electric harp
  48. Electric instrument
  49. Electric piano
  50. Electric violin
  51. Electronic instrument
  52. Electronic keyboard
  53. Electronic organ
  54. English horn
  55. Euphonium
  56. Fiddle
  57. Flamenco guitar
  58. Floor tom
  59. Flugelhorn
  60. Flute
  61. Flute d'amour
  62. Glockenspiel
  63. Gong
  64. Hammered dulcimer
  65. Hammond organ
  66. Handbells
  67. Harmonica
  68. Harmonium
  69. Harp
  70. Harp guitar
  71. Harpsichord
  72. Hi-hat
  73. Horn
  74. Horn section
  75. Keyboard instrument
  76. Koto
  77. Lamellaphone
  78. Latin percussion
  79. List of string instruments
  80. Lute
  81. Lyre
  82. Mandola
  83. Mandolin
  84. Manual
  85. Maraca
  86. Marimba
  87. Marimbaphone
  88. Mellophone
  89. Melodica
  90. Metallophone
  91. Mouthpiece
  92. Music
  93. Musical bow
  94. Musical instrument
  95. Musical instrument classification
  96. Musical instrument digital interface
  97. Musical keyboard
  98. Oboe
  99. Ocarina
  100. Orchestra
  101. Organ
  102. Organology
  103. Pan flute
  104. Pedalboard
  105. Percussion instrument
  106. Piano
  107. Piccolo
  108. Pickup
  109. Pipe organ
  110. Piston valve
  111. Player piano
  112. Plectrum
  113. Psaltery
  114. Recorder
  115. Ride cymbal
  116. Sampler
  117. Saxophone
  118. Shamisen
  119. Sitar
  120. Snare drum
  121. Sound module
  122. Spinet
  123. Steel drums
  124. Steel-string acoustic guitar
  125. Stringed instrument
  126. String instrument
  127. Strings
  128. Synthesizer
  129. Tambourine
  130. Theremin
  131. Timbales
  132. Timpani
  133. Tom-tom drum
  134. Triangle
  135. Trombone
  136. Trumpet
  137. Tuba
  138. Tubular bell
  139. Tuned percussion
  140. Ukulele
  141. Vibraphone
  142. Viol
  143. Viola
  144. Viola d'amore
  145. Violin
  146. Vocal music
  147. Wind instrument
  148. Wood block
  149. Woodwind instrument
  150. Xylophone
  151. Zither


This article is from:

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: 

Viola d'amore

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The viola d'amore (Italian: love viol) is a 7- or 6-stringed musical instrument with sympathetic strings used chiefly in the baroque period. It is played under the chin in the same manner as the violin.

Structure and sound

The viola d'amore shares many features of the viol family. Like viols, it has a flat back and intricately carved head at the top of the peg box, but unlike viols, it is unfretted, and played much like a violin, being held horizontally under the chin. It is about the same size as the modern viola.

The viola d'amore usually has seven playing strings, which are sounded by drawing a bow across them, just as with a violin. In addition, it has seven sympathetic strings located below the main strings and the fingerboard which are not played directly but vibrate in sympathy with the notes played. A common variation is six playing strings, and instruments exist with as many as fourteen sympathetic strings alone. Despite the fact that the sympathetic strings are now thought of as the most characteristic element of the instrument, it is thought that some early examples may have lacked them.

Largely thanks to the sympathetic strings, the viola d'amore has a particularly sweet and warm sound. Leopold Mozart, writing in his Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule, said that the instrument sounded "especially charming in the stillness of the evening."


The viola d'amore was normally tuned specifically for the piece it was to play - cf. scordatura. Towards the end of the 18th century the standard tuning became: A, d, a, d', f#', a', d''

Viola d'Amore from 1760
Viola d'Amore from 1760


The instrument was especially popular in the late 17th century, although a specialised viola d'amore player would have been highly unusual, since it was customary for professional musicians to play a number of instruments, especially within the family of the musician's main instrument. Later, the instrument fell from use, as the volume and power of the violin family became preferred over the delicacy and sweetness of the viol family. However, there has been renewed interest in the viola d'amore in the last century. The viola players Henri Casadesus and Paul Hindemith both played the viola d'amore in the early 20th century, and the film composer Bernard Herrmann made use of it in several scores. It may be noted that, like instruments of the violin family, the modern viola d'amore was altered slightly in structure from the baroque version.

The viola d'amore can regularly be heard today in musical ensembles that specialise in historically accurate performances of Baroque music on authentic instruments.

Some works from the baroque period

  • Heinrich Biber: Harmonia artificiosa - ariosa
  • Antonio Vivaldi: Vivaldi was particularly known for using the viola d'amore for different music. While he has written five concertos (one for viola d'amore and lute) specifically for the viola d'amore, there have been viola d'amore cadenzas in his other works and repertoire. In both Nisi Dominus he wrote (RV 608 and RV 807), a cadenza is apparent in the movement Gloria Patri, and another cadenza is found in his opera Tito Manlio, in the aria Tu dormi in tante pene.
  • Johann Sebastian Bach: used in aria no.19 of the Johannes Passion and in some cantatas
  • Jean-Marie Leclair : trio sonata for flute, viola d'amore and continuo
  • Attilio Ariosti : some divertissements, used also in cantatas
  • Joseph Haydn : divertimento for viola d'amore, violin and violoncello
  • Georg Philipp Telemann: Concerto in E major for flute, oboe d'amore, viola d'amore, strings and continuo
  • Carl Stamitz: 3 solo concertos, a sonata in D major for viola d'amore and violin or viola, various other sonatas, and a quartet.
  • Joseph Leopold Eybler: Quintet I D major for viola d'amore, violin, viola cello violone.
  • Joseph Leopold Eybler: Quintet II D major for viola d'amore, violin, viola cello and violone.
  • Franz Anton Hoffmeister: Quartet E flat major (D major) for viola d'amore, 2 violins and cello.
  • Carlo Martinides: Divertimento D major for viola d'amore, violin, viola and cello.

Some modern works

  • Henri Casadesus (1879-1947) : Concerto for viola d'amore and strings
  • Paul Hindemith (1895-1963) : Small sonata for viola d'amore
  • Frank Martin (1890-1974) : Sonata da chiesa for viola d'amore and organ

The viola d'amore is also used in:

  • 'Les Huguenots' by Giacomo Meyerbeer (1836)
  • 'Le jongleur de Notre-Dame' by Jules Massenet (1901)
  • 'Madame Butterfly' by Giacomo Puccini (1904)
  • 'Palestrina' by Hans Pfitzner (1912)
  • 'Katya Kabanova' by Leoš Janáček (1919) - the viola d'amore represents the title character.

External links

  • viola d' - The hidden world of the viola d'amore
  • viola d'amore society of America
  • Orpheon Foundation, Vienna, Austria - Collection of historical instruments. Website includes pictures and details of some violas d'amore
  • violadamore_e.htm - Editio Alto
Retrieved from ""