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  1. Accordion
  2. Acoustic bass guitar
  3. Aeolian harp
  4. Archlute
  5. Bagpipes
  6. Balalaika
  7. Bandoneon
  8. Banjo
  9. Baroque trumpet
  10. Bass drum
  11. Bassoon
  12. Bongo drums
  13. Bouzouki
  14. Brass band
  15. Brass instrument
  16. Bugle
  17. Carillon
  18. Castanet
  19. Celesta
  20. Cello
  21. Chapman Stick
  22. Chime tree
  23. Chordophone
  24. Cimbalom
  25. Clarinet
  26. Claves
  27. Clavichord
  28. Clavinet
  29. Concertina
  30. Conga
  31. Cornamuse
  32. Cornet
  33. Cornett
  34. Cowbell
  35. Crash cymbal
  36. Crotales
  37. Cymbal
  38. Digital piano
  39. Disklavier
  40. Double bass
  41. Drum
  42. Drum kit
  43. Drum machine
  44. Drum stick
  45. Electric bass
  46. Electric guitar
  47. Electric harp
  48. Electric instrument
  49. Electric piano
  50. Electric violin
  51. Electronic instrument
  52. Electronic keyboard
  53. Electronic organ
  54. English horn
  55. Euphonium
  56. Fiddle
  57. Flamenco guitar
  58. Floor tom
  59. Flugelhorn
  60. Flute
  61. Flute d'amour
  62. Glockenspiel
  63. Gong
  64. Hammered dulcimer
  65. Hammond organ
  66. Handbells
  67. Harmonica
  68. Harmonium
  69. Harp
  70. Harp guitar
  71. Harpsichord
  72. Hi-hat
  73. Horn
  74. Horn section
  75. Keyboard instrument
  76. Koto
  77. Lamellaphone
  78. Latin percussion
  79. List of string instruments
  80. Lute
  81. Lyre
  82. Mandola
  83. Mandolin
  84. Manual
  85. Maraca
  86. Marimba
  87. Marimbaphone
  88. Mellophone
  89. Melodica
  90. Metallophone
  91. Mouthpiece
  92. Music
  93. Musical bow
  94. Musical instrument
  95. Musical instrument classification
  96. Musical instrument digital interface
  97. Musical keyboard
  98. Oboe
  99. Ocarina
  100. Orchestra
  101. Organ
  102. Organology
  103. Pan flute
  104. Pedalboard
  105. Percussion instrument
  106. Piano
  107. Piccolo
  108. Pickup
  109. Pipe organ
  110. Piston valve
  111. Player piano
  112. Plectrum
  113. Psaltery
  114. Recorder
  115. Ride cymbal
  116. Sampler
  117. Saxophone
  118. Shamisen
  119. Sitar
  120. Snare drum
  121. Sound module
  122. Spinet
  123. Steel drums
  124. Steel-string acoustic guitar
  125. Stringed instrument
  126. String instrument
  127. Strings
  128. Synthesizer
  129. Tambourine
  130. Theremin
  131. Timbales
  132. Timpani
  133. Tom-tom drum
  134. Triangle
  135. Trombone
  136. Trumpet
  137. Tuba
  138. Tubular bell
  139. Tuned percussion
  140. Ukulele
  141. Vibraphone
  142. Viol
  143. Viola
  144. Viola d'amore
  145. Violin
  146. Vocal music
  147. Wind instrument
  148. Wood block
  149. Woodwind instrument
  150. Xylophone
  151. Zither


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



The 30-note pedalboard of an old Rieger organ with expression pedal and coupler switches.
The 30-note pedalboard of an old Rieger organ with expression pedal and coupler switches.

Pedalboard (also called pedal clavier) is the name of a large keyboard at the base of an electronic or pipe organ console that the organist plays with the feet. Its layout is roughly the same as any organ or piano keyboard, with long pedals for the natural notes of the Western musical scale, and shorter, usually darker, pedals for the sharps and flats. The layout of the pedals can be either radial or parallel. Organists usually use the pedalboard to produce low-pitched notes for bass accompaniment; in pipe organ music, the pedals are what give the organ music its powerful foundation (though it is less often used to play the cantus firmus of chorale preludes, for example). On a digital electronic organ, the pedalboard may produce a variety of different sounds and registrations. By using the feet to play an independent bass line, the organist is able to play three rather than two lines, adding an additional dimension to the music; it also frees the organist's hands for playing more intricate music on the manuals (keyboards).

As an organist plays the pedalboard, they sometimes appear to be dancing, making the music both visually and audibly richer and more powerful. Most pedalboards range in size from 13 notes (an octave, C2-C3) to 32 notes (two and a half octaves, C2-G4). Pedalboards smaller than 32 notes are usually found in small- to medium-size electronic organs, while 32-note boards are the province of pipe organs and higher-end electronic organs. The industry standard today is the AGO pedalboard, a concave, radial, 32-note board that places all of the pedals within easy reach. Other controls are located near the pedalboard; these can include expression pedals, a crescendo pedal, toe pistons for changing registration swiftly, and, on electronic organs, toe switches and effects pedals. This complexity, when added to the organist's job of playing the manuals, require organists to possess what is perhaps the highest degree or coordination to be found in the musical world.

A 25-note pedalboard on a Hammond Organ. While it is playable by both feet, the organist here  is using only her left foot, while she works the organ's expression pedal with her right foot in order to influence the music's dynamics and overall volume.
A 25-note pedalboard on a Hammond Organ. While it is playable by both feet, the organist here is using only her left foot, while she works the organ's expression pedal with her right foot in order to influence the music's dynamics and overall volume.

Thirteen and 20-note boards most usually appear on small spinet organs or synthesizers and are designed to be played with the left foot, while the organist rests the right foot on the expression pedal, which control the volume and dynamics. Twenty-five and 32-note boards are the sign of a pipe or console organ; with these (especially the 25-note board), the organist may also confine the right foot to the expression pedal (or, with larger instruments, expression pedals). However, the pedals are designed to be played with both feet. Playing the pedalboard with both feet usually makes the music flow much more smoothly.

Classical repertoire incorporates a standard, well-developed method of two-foot pedaling. With this method, the organist works the pedals with the heels and toes (or, more accurately, the balls of the feet, although this method is still called 'heel-and-toe'). In popular organ music, especially in custom arrangements and music that incorporates improvisation, the style of pedaling is more flexible and more idiosyncratic. With shorter pedalboards designed to be played primarily with the left foot, for instance, the organist often greatly restricts or entirely omits the use of the heel, working the pedals with light touches of the toes; this allows swifty coverage of the pedalboard.

To feel and play the pedals efficiently, many organists, especially classical performers, wear special organ shoes, while some, especially those who play electronic organs and synthesizers, play shoeless (a famous example being jazz organist Rhoda Scott, who is known as the Hammond organ’s “Barefoot Contessa” and “The Barefoot Lady”).

The many masterpieces written for the organ require precise pedalling with both feet, which can be accomplished only by wearing suitable leather-soled shoes, allowing easy movement from one pedal to the next, or one location to another on the pedalboard. Though some organ benches are adjustable in height, tall organists (those about six feet and greater) must usually use wooden blocks to elevate the bench to a height which will allow their legs to freely move. Otherwise, such organists would have to lift their legs excessively.

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