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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Accordion
  2. Acoustic bass guitar
  3. Aeolian harp
  4. Archlute
  5. Bagpipes
  6. Balalaika
  7. Bandoneon
  8. Banjo
  9. Baroque trumpet
  10. Bass drum
  11. Bassoon
  12. Bongo drums
  13. Bouzouki
  14. Brass band
  15. Brass instrument
  16. Bugle
  17. Carillon
  18. Castanet
  19. Celesta
  20. Cello
  21. Chapman Stick
  22. Chime tree
  23. Chordophone
  24. Cimbalom
  25. Clarinet
  26. Claves
  27. Clavichord
  28. Clavinet
  29. Concertina
  30. Conga
  31. Cornamuse
  32. Cornet
  33. Cornett
  34. Cowbell
  35. Crash cymbal
  36. Crotales
  37. Cymbal
  38. Digital piano
  39. Disklavier
  40. Double bass
  41. Drum
  42. Drum kit
  43. Drum machine
  44. Drum stick
  45. Electric bass
  46. Electric guitar
  47. Electric harp
  48. Electric instrument
  49. Electric piano
  50. Electric violin
  51. Electronic instrument
  52. Electronic keyboard
  53. Electronic organ
  54. English horn
  55. Euphonium
  56. Fiddle
  57. Flamenco guitar
  58. Floor tom
  59. Flugelhorn
  60. Flute
  61. Flute d'amour
  62. Glockenspiel
  63. Gong
  64. Hammered dulcimer
  65. Hammond organ
  66. Handbells
  67. Harmonica
  68. Harmonium
  69. Harp
  70. Harp guitar
  71. Harpsichord
  72. Hi-hat
  73. Horn
  74. Horn section
  75. Keyboard instrument
  76. Koto
  77. Lamellaphone
  78. Latin percussion
  79. List of string instruments
  80. Lute
  81. Lyre
  82. Mandola
  83. Mandolin
  84. Manual
  85. Maraca
  86. Marimba
  87. Marimbaphone
  88. Mellophone
  89. Melodica
  90. Metallophone
  91. Mouthpiece
  92. Music
  93. Musical bow
  94. Musical instrument
  95. Musical instrument classification
  96. Musical instrument digital interface
  97. Musical keyboard
  98. Oboe
  99. Ocarina
  100. Orchestra
  101. Organ
  102. Organology
  103. Pan flute
  104. Pedalboard
  105. Percussion instrument
  106. Piano
  107. Piccolo
  108. Pickup
  109. Pipe organ
  110. Piston valve
  111. Player piano
  112. Plectrum
  113. Psaltery
  114. Recorder
  115. Ride cymbal
  116. Sampler
  117. Saxophone
  118. Shamisen
  119. Sitar
  120. Snare drum
  121. Sound module
  122. Spinet
  123. Steel drums
  124. Steel-string acoustic guitar
  125. Stringed instrument
  126. String instrument
  127. Strings
  128. Synthesizer
  129. Tambourine
  130. Theremin
  131. Timbales
  132. Timpani
  133. Tom-tom drum
  134. Triangle
  135. Trombone
  136. Trumpet
  137. Tuba
  138. Tubular bell
  139. Tuned percussion
  140. Ukulele
  141. Vibraphone
  142. Viol
  143. Viola
  144. Viola d'amore
  145. Violin
  146. Vocal music
  147. Wind instrument
  148. Wood block
  149. Woodwind instrument
  150. Xylophone
  151. Zither

 



MUSIC INSTRUMENTS
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baroque_trumpet

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Baroque trumpet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

A "lip-vibrated aerophone," the baroque trumpet is a musical instrument in the brass family (Smithers 1988). A baroque trumpet is a brass instrument used in the 16th through 18th centuries, or a modern replica of a period instrument. Modern reproductions include both natural trumpets and the slightly embellished vented trumpets (Barclay 1998).

History

The first trumpets were made by vibrating the lips into an amplifier of some type, like a shell or an animal horn. The first metal trumpets are attributed to the Egyptans, after two trumpets were discovered in the tomb of Tutankhamun: one of silver and one of bronze. These types of trumpets were used for signaling, and the sound they produce has been compared to the braying of a donkey. The trumpetís primary use through most of history has been for signaling, especially in times of war. In the middle Ages, the trumpet began to appear in courts, providing ceremonial fanfares (Tarr 1988).

Around 1400, instrument makers discovered the method for tube bending, and the trumpet began to take its familiar curved shape. Around the same time, trumpet players began to experiment with the range of the trumpet. By the 1550s, five part trumpet ensembles requiring each player to perform a different register of the trumpet were appearing (Tarr 1988).

Instruments of the period

Some of the finest surviving examples of trumpets from the Baroque period date back as far as the 1580s, and were made by Anton Schnitzer of Nuremberg (Barclay 1992). Other notable trumpet makers include: the Hainlein family of Nuremberg, the Haas family of Nuremberg, the Ehe family of Nuremberg, and William Bull of London (Bate 1978). All of these instrument makers built what are now called natural trumpets. During the period, however, these instruments would simply have been called trumpets.

Natural trumpets are crafted from brass, copper, bronze, or silver. Natural trumpets are difficult to play because they have no method of chromatic alteration, such as the valve on a modern trumpet. Instead, natural trumpets rely on the harmonic series, and pitch bending by the player to correct the out-of-tune harmonics. The harmonic series is a sequence of harmonics, overtones, or partials that can be created by increasing the frequency of the vibration, in the case of a trumpet, of a column of air (Smithers 1978). The natural harmonic series has several notes that are out-of-tune to modern western perception, notably the 7th, 11th and 13th partials. Where a composition demands these notes, the player must 'lip' them into tune, a notoriously difficult task (Barclay).

Modern replicas

Today, replicas of the natural trumpets from the Baroque era are called baroque trumpets. These reproductions are usually employed by period music ensembles to try and achieve a more authentic performance. However, the modern imitations usually include an element not found on the original instruments (Barclay 1998).

Modern instruments have what are called vent holes. These are located at an anti-node, or a position where the sound wave reflects off of the inside of the tube. The fingers cover these vents to play in the original key of the instrument. When one of the fingers is lifted, the result is a new length of the air column, producing a different transposition of the harmonic series. The vent holes are available in three hole and four hole variations, allowing the performer to correct virtually every out of tune harmonic in the series (Steele-Perkins 2001).

However, the sound produced on a vented or baroque trumpet is not of the same quality as that of the natural trumpet. Many baroque trumpets are made using the current machining methods used for modern trumpets, not the hand hammered technique exercised by the master craftsmen like Schnitzer, Haas, Hainlein, Ehe, and others. Unfortunately, many individual performers and "period instrument" orchestras convey the impression (whether intentionally or not) that these instruments are faithful copies of the originals. This has produced some controversy. Some believe that the pure natural instrument's occasional problems of faulty intonation or attack (which can occur even with the most skilled players) are simply a by-product of the characteristics of the instrument, and should be accepted as "genuinely" recreating the original sound. Others are content with the notion that tone holes are a necessary compromise to insure that the intonation is acceptable to modern ears while still retaining an approximation of the overall sound and balance of the original instrument.

Construction

Because the modern baroque trumpet is modeled after the natural trumpets of the Baroque era, the components of both instruments are nearly identical. There is a mouthpiece, which is inserted into the receiver. The receiver is attached to the long tubing, called the first yard by a short connector, called a ferrule. The first yard is connected by a ferrule to the first bow, followed by another ferrule and the second yard. The second yard is attached by a ferrule to the second bow. On the baroque trumpet, the vent holes are located at the top of the second yard, and possibly on the second bow. After the second bow are the bellpipe, the ball, the bell, garland, and bezel. The bellpipe and first yard are separated by a wood block, and over that is placed a cord for binding (Barclay 1992).

See also

  • natural trumpet


 

References

  • Barclay, Robert. 1992. The Art of the Trumpet-Maker. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Barclay, Robert. 1998. A New Species of Instrument: The Vented Trumpet in Context. Historic Brass Journal, vol. 10: p.1-13.
  • Bate, Philip. 1978. Instruments of the Orchestra: The Trumpet and Trombone. London: Ernest Benn.
  • Smithers, Don L. 1988. The Music and History of the Baroque Trumpet before 1721. 2nd edition. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
  • Steele-Perkins, Crispian. 2001. The Trumpet. London: Kahn & Averill.
  • Tarr, Edward. 1988. The Trumpet. Translated by S.E. Plank. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press.

External links

  • http://www.earlybrass.com/nattrump.htm
  • http://launch.groups.yahoo.com/group/NaturalTrumpet/
  • http://www.baroquetrumpet.com/
  • http://www.eggerinstruments.ch/home.htm
  • http://www.trumpetmaker.com
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