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DISPONIBILI
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ART
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BUSINESS&LAW
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CARS
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GAMES&SPORT
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COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
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EDUCATION
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MEDICINE
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TRADITIONS
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NATURE
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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Action game
  2. Advergaming
  3. Arcade machine
  4. Artificial intelligence
  5. Atari Games
  6. Atari Lynx
  7. Audio game
  8. Board games
  9. Browser game
  10. Casual game
  11. Christian video games
  12. Comparison of handheld gaming consoles
  13. Computer and video games
  14. Computer animation
  15. Computer-assisted role-playing game
  16. Computer graphics
  17. Computer role-playing game
  18. Console game
  19. Dr. Mario
  20. Famicom
  21. First person shooter
  22. Game
  23. Game balance
  24. Game Boy
  25. Game Boy Advance
  26. Game Boy Color
  27. Game Boy line
  28. Game Boy Micro
  29. Game classification
  30. Game controller
  31. Game design
  32. Game designer
  33. Game developer
  34. Game Developer Magazine
  35. Game development
  36. Game development tool
  37. Game mechanic
  38. Gameplay
  39. Game programmer
  40. Game programming
  41. Gamer
  42. Game server browser
  43. Game studies
  44. Gaming convention
  45. Golden Age of Arcade Games
  46. Handheld game console
  47. History of computer and video games
  48. History of video game consoles
  49. History of video games
  50. Hotseat
  51. Internet gaming
  52. Joystick
  53. LAN gaming center
  54. List of books about computer and video games
  55. List of commercial failures in computer and video gaming
  56. List of gaming topics
  57. Mobile game
  58. Multiplayer game
  59. N-Gage
  60. Nintendo 64
  61. Nintendo DS
  62. Nintendo GameCube
  63. Personal computer game
  64. Pinball
  65. Play-by-mail game
  66. Play-by-post game
  67. PlayStation 3
  68. PlayStation Portable
  69. Pong
  70. Programming game
  71. Puzzle computer game
  72. Real-time strategy
  73. Sega Dreamcast
  74. Sega Saturn
  75. Serious game
  76. Simulation game
  77. Single player
  78. Sony PlayStation
  79. Stealth-based game
  80. Strategy game
  81. Strategy guide
  82. Super Nintendo Entertainment System
  83. Synthespian
  84. Tabletop role-playing game
  85. Teamspeak
  86. Tetris
  87. Tokyo Game Show
  88. Video game center
  89. Video game console
  90. Video game crash of 1983
  91. Video game industry
  92. Video game publisher
  93. Wargame
  94. Wii
  95. Xbox 360

 



VIDEO & COMPUTER GAMES
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_graphics

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Computer graphics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
The Utah teapot
The Utah teapot

Overview

Computer graphics is a subfield of computer science and is concerned with digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content. Although the term often refers to three-dimensional computer graphics, it also encompasses two-dimensional graphics and image processing. Graphics is often differentiated from the field of visualization, although the two have many similarities. Entertainment (in the form of animated movies and video games) is perhaps the most well-known application of graphics.

Some major subproblems in computer graphics include:

  1. describing the shape of an object (modeling)
  2. describing the motion of an object (animation)
  3. creating an image of an object (rendering)

Branches of Computer Graphics

Modeling

Modeling describes the shape of an object. The two most common sources of 3D models are those created by an artist using some kind of 3D modeling tool, and those scanned into a computer from real-world objects. Models can also be produced procedurally or via physical simulation.

Because the appearance of an object depends largely on the exterior of the object, boundary representations are most common in computer graphics. Two dimensional surfaces are a good analogy for the objects used in graphics, though quite often these objects are non-manifold. Since surfaces are not finite, a discrete digital approximation is required: polygonal meshes (and to a lesser extent subdivision surfaces) are by far the most common representation, although point-based representations have been gaining some popularity in recent years. Level sets are a useful representation for deforming surfaces which undergo many topological changes such as fluids.

Subfields

  • Subdivision surfaces
  • Digital geometry processing - surface reconstruction, mesh simplification, mesh repair, parameterization, remeshing, mesh generation, mesh compression, and mesh editing all fall under this heading.
  • Discrete differential geometry - DDG is a recent topic which defines geometric quantities for the discrete surfaces used in computer graphics.
  • Point-based graphics - a recent field which focuses on points as the fundamental representation of surfaces.

Shading

Texturing, or more generally, shading is the process of describing surface appearance. This description can be as simple as the specification of a color in some colorspace or as elaborate as a shader program which describes numerous appearance attributes across the surface. The term is often used to mean texture mapping, which maps a raster image to a surface to give it detail. A more generic description of surface appearance is given by the bidirectional scattering distribution function, which describes the relationship between incoming and outgoing illumination at a given point.

Animation

Animation refers to the temporal description of an object, i.e., how it moves and deforms over time. There are numerous ways to describe these motion, many of which are used in conjunction with each-other. Popular methods include keyframing, inverse kinematics, and motion capture. As with modeling, physical simulation is another way of specifying motion.

Rendering

Rendering converts a model into an image either by simulating light transport to get physically-based photorealistic images, or by applying some kind of style as in non-photorealistic rendering. See Rendering for more information.

Subfields

  • physically-based rendering - concerned with generating images according to the laws of geometric optics
  • real time rendering - focuses on rendering for interactive applications, typically using specialized hardware like GPUs
  • non-photorealistic rendering
  • relighting - recent area concerned with quickly re-rendering scenes

History

William Fetter was credited with coining the term Computer Graphics in 1960, to describe his work at Boeing. One of the first displays of computer animation was Futureworld (1976), which included an animation of a human face and hand produced by Ed Catmull and Fred Parke at the University of Utah.

The most significant results in computer graphics are published annually in a special edition of ACM Transactions on Graphics and presented at SIGGRAPH.

An extensive history of computer graphics can be found at [1].

Applications

  • Special effects
  • Video games

Current Challenges

Connected Studies

  • Computer vision
  • Image processing

See Also

Numerous sub-areas of computer graphics can be found in.

Miscellaneous

  • Digital geometry
  • Digital image editing
  • Graphics processing unit (GPU)
  • Graphical output devices
  • Utah Teapot
  • Stanford Bunny
  • SIGGRAPH
  • ASCII art


 

External Links

  • A Critical History of Computer Graphics and Animation
  • History of Computer Graphics series of articles
  • The ARTS: Episode 5 An in depth interview with Legalize on the subject of the History of Computer Graphics. (Available in MP3 audio format)
  • CGSociety The Computer Graphics Society
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_graphics"