Seventh-day Adventist Church
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The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Christian denomination which, as its name suggests, is best known for its teaching that Saturday, the seventh day of the week, is the Sabbath and that the second advent of Jesus Christ is imminent. The denomination, which was officially established in 1863, grew out of the Millerite movement in the United States during the middle part of the 19th century. Seventh-day Adventists are also known for their teachings regarding diet and health, their belief in the unconscious state of the dead, and the belief that Jesus is now performing an investigative judgment in heaven. As of June, 2006, the church has 14,754,022 baptized members.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church was born out of the Millerite Movement of the 1840s, which was part of the wave of revivalism known as the Second Great Awakening. The Millerite movement is named after William Miller, who, during his early adulthood, became a Deist. After fighting in the War of 1812, Miller bought a farm in Low Hampton, New York, (now a historic site owned and operated by Adventist Heritage Ministry), where he began attending a local Baptist church to please his grandmother. One day, when reading a sermon upon request of the local deacons, he was convinced of the benefits of Christian salvation. As a result of ridicule from his deist friends, he began studying the Bible, using a concordance as his only study aid. He had a particular interest in the prophecies of the Book of Daniel, and their relation to events of history.
When studying Daniel chapter 8, Miller became convinced that the "cleansing" in Daniel 8:14 referred to Christ's return to "cleanse" the church. Furthermore, he concluded that the "two thousand and three hundred days" of Daniel 8:14 represented a period of 2300 years commencing in the year 457 BC, when the command was given by Artaxerxes I to rebuild Jerusalem (the "year-for-a-day" principle being based on the prophecy of Seventy Weeks). This led him to conclude that the second coming of Christ would occur "about the year 1843." The Millerite movement culminated with the "seventh month movement", which taught that the "priestly ministry of Christ" would culminate with the cleansing of the earth, pinpointing the second coming of Christ on or before October 22, 1844. When He did not come, this became known as "the Great Disappointment".
A small number of Millerites believed that their calculations were correct, but that their understanding of the sanctuary being cleansed was wrong, and they began to teach that something else happened in 1844. Their Bible study led them to the conviction that in that year Jesus had entered into the "Most Holy Place" of the heavenly sanctuary, and began an "investigative judgment" of the world: a process through which there is an examination of the heavenly records to "determine who, through repentance of sin and faith in Christ, are entitled to the benefits of atonement", after which Jesus will return to earth. According to the church's teaching, the return of Christ may occur very soon, though they are determined to never set dates for His coming in accordance with the gospel of Matthew which says, "no one knows the day or the hour" (Matthew 24:36).
At about the same time that the followers of the movement were studying the sanctuary, the question of the biblical day of rest and worship was raised. The foremost proponent of Sabbath-keeping among early Adventists was retired sea captain Joseph Bates. Bates was introduced to the Sabbath doctrine by a tract written by a Millerite preacher named Thomas M. Preble who in turn had been influenced by a young Seventh Day Baptist lady by the name of Rachel Oakes Preston.
This message was gradually accepted and formed the topic of the first edition of the church publication, The Present Truth (now the Adventist Review) which appeared in July 1849. While initially it was believed that the Sabbath started at 6pm, by 1855 it was generally accepted that the Sabbath begins at sunset.
For about 20 years, the Adventist movement consisted of a loosely knit group of people who adhered to this message. Among its greatest supporters were James White, Ellen G. White and Joseph Bates. After intense discussions a formally organized church called the Seventh-day Adventist Church was established in Battle Creek, Michigan, in May 1863, with a membership of 3,500. Through the evangelistic efforts of its ministers and laity and the guidance of Ellen G. White, the church quickly grew and established a presence beyond North America during the late 1800s. In 1903, the denominational headquarters were moved from Battle Creek to temporary quarters in Washington D.C. and soon thereafter established in nearby Takoma Park, Maryland. In 1989, the headquarters was moved again, this time to Silver Spring, Maryland.
The core teachings of the Seventh-day Adventist denomination are expressed in the church's 28 Fundamental Beliefs. This statement of beliefs was originally adopted by the church's General Conference in 1980, with an additional belief (number 11) being added in 2005.
Adventist doctrine resembles mainstream trinitarian Protestant theology, with premillennial and Arminian emphases. Seventh-day Adventists uphold evangelical teachings such as the infallibility of Scripture, the substitutionary atonement, the resurrection of the dead and justification by faith.
There are, in addition, some distinctive teachings that are unique to Seventh-day Adventism:
- Law - Seventh-day Adventists believe that the Law of God is "embodied in the Ten Commandments", which continue to be binding upon Christians.
- Sabbath - Adventists believe that the Sabbath should be observed on the seventh day of the week, i.e. from Friday sunset to Saturday sunset. They further believe that the change of the Sabbath day to Sunday lacks biblical authorization.
- Second Coming and End times - Adventists have a unique view of the end times, based on the historicist method of prophetic interpretation. They believe that Jesus Christ will return visibly to earth after a "time of trouble". The second coming will be followed by a millennial reign of the saints in heaven. See eschatology (Adventist).
- State of the dead - Adventists believe that death is an unconscious sleep, commonly known as "soul sleep", and reject the idea of an immortal soul.
- Conditional immortality - Adventists teach that the wicked will not endure eternal torment in hell, but instead will be permanently destroyed. See Conditional immortality, Annihilationism.
- Great Controversy - Adventists believe that humanity is involved in a "great controversy" between Jesus Christ and Satan. This is a unique understanding of the origin of evil, which teaches that evil began in heaven when an angelic being (Lucifer) rebelled against the Law of God.
- Heavenly sanctuary - Adventists teach that Christ ascended to heaven to minister in the heavenly sanctuary. In 1844, he began the cleansing of the heavenly sanctuary in fulfillment of the Day of Atonement.
- Investigative Judgment - This doctrine asserts that a judgment of professed Christians began in 1844, in which the books of record are examined for all the universe to see. The investigative judgment will affirm who is worthy of salvation, and vindicate God as just in His dealings with mankind.
- Remnant - Adventists teach that there will be an end-time remnant who keep the commandments of God and have "the testimony of Jesus" (Revelation 12:17). This remnant proclaims the "three angels' messages" of Revelation 14:6-12 to the world.
- Spirit of Prophecy - Ellen G. White is believed by Adventists to have possessed the "Spirit of Prophecy" and her writings are considered an authoritative source of guidance (see prophetic gift of Ellen White). Adventists make it clear that the Bible is the definitive source of truth.
Practices and customs
A typical Seventh-day Adventist's Sabbath routine will often begin on Friday evening with sundown worship at home or in church, known as Vespers. Saturday morning is greeted with Bible study and a prayer of thanksgiving for physical and spiritual rest and repose. Adventists believe that "we are called to grow into the likeness of His character, communing with Him daily in prayer, feeding on His Word".
Another activity that occurs on Sabbath is Sabbath School, analogous to Sunday school in other churches. Sabbath School is a structured time of study at church, consisting of an introduction to the day's study, discussion in classes and a conclusion by the Sabbath School's leader. The Church uses a Sabbath School Lesson, which deals with a particular Biblical doctrine or teaching every quarter. The Lesson is the same worldwide. Different groups are formed in which biblical themes and practical questions can be freely discussed. Special meetings are provided for children and youth in different age groups during this time.
After a small break, the community joins together again for a church service that follows a typical evangelical format which may vary from church to church but which will always have a sermon as a central feature. Worship through music is a standard and prominent feature.
Seventh-day Adventists practice communion usually four times a year. The communion is an open service (available to members and Christian non-members), based on the Gospel account of John 13. The communion service includes a feet washing ceremony, known as the Ordinance of Humility. The Ordinance of Humility is meant to symbolize Christ's washing of his disciples' feet at the Last Supper. Participants segregate by gender to separate rooms to conduct this ritual, although some congregations allow married couples to perform the ordinance on each other, so there is also an area for married couples. After its completion, participants return to the main sanctuary for consumption of the Lord's Supper, which consists of unleavened bread and unfermented grape juice.
In some churches, members and friends will stay at the church for a potluck lunch, for which everyone contributes a dish. Visitors are always welcomed.
Sabbath afternoon activities may vary widely depending on the cultural, ethnic and social background. Some may have an Adventist Youth program which is focused on the youths of the church, and some churches may have a scout-like program called Pathfinders that focuses on the study of the Bible and their relationship with God, often through physical activities such as hiking and nature viewing. Sleeping and playing games is also often an afternoon activity.
Started in the late 1800s, Adventist mission work today reaches people in more than 204 countries of the world. Adventist mission workers preach the gospel, teach relevant living skills, heal people through Adventist hospitals and clinics, spread the gospel on radio and television, run development projects to make better lives for people, and provide comforting relief in times of suffering.
Missionary outreach of the Seventh-day Adventist church is aimed to both nonbelievers and other Christian denominations. Seventh-day Adventists believe that Christ has called His believers to minister to the whole world. The church ministers in over 204 countries worldwide. Adventists are cautious, however, to ensure that evangelism does not impede on the basic rights of the individual. Religious liberty is a stance that the Seventh-day Adventist church supports and promotes. Traditional Adventist evangelistic efforts consisted of street missions and the distribution of tracts such as "The Present Truth", which was published by James White as early as 1849.
Adventists, as demonstrated in their expansive distribution of tracts, have for a long time, like their Millerite fathers, been proponents of media-based ministries. Until J. N. Andrews was sent to Switzerland in 1874, Adventist global efforts consisted entirely of the posting of tracts such as White's to various locations. The reading of such material was the primary reason that Andrews was eventually called to travel overseas.
In the last century, these media based efforts have also made use of emerging media such as radio and television. The first of these was H. M. S. Richards' radio show, "Voice of Prophecy", which was initially broadcast in Los Angeles in 1929. Since then Adventists have been on the forefront of media evangelism, and one program, "It Is Written", was the first religious program to air on colour television. Today "The Hope Channel", the official television network of the church, operates six international channels broadcasting 24 hours a day on both cable and satellite networks. In addition, a number of satellite broadcasted live evangelistic events have also been undertaken by evangelists such as Mark Finley, Dwight Nelson and others, addressing audiences of unknown numbers in up to 40 languages simultaneously. Additionally, a privately owned station 3ABN broadcasts Adventist themed programs.
Health, diet, and sexuality
Since the 1860s when the church began, wholeness and health have been an emphasis of the Seventh-day Adventist church. Seventh-day Adventists present a health message that recommends vegetarianism and expects abstinence from pork, shellfish, and other foods proscribed as "unclean" in Leviticus 11, as well as from alcohol and tobacco.
The pioneers of the Seventh-day Adventist Church had much to do with the common acceptance of breakfast cereals into the Western diet. John Harvey Kellogg was one of the early founders of the Seventh-day Adventist health work. His development of breakfast cereals as a health food led to the founding of Kellogg's by his brother William K. Kellogg.
Seventh-day Adventists run a large number of hospitals and health-related institutions. Their predominant school of medicine in North America, Loma Linda University, is located in Loma Linda, California. In Australia, the church-owned Sanitarium Health Food Company is one of Australia's leading manufacturers of health and vegetarian-related products.
Research funded by the National Institutes of Health has shown that the average Adventist in California lives four to ten years longer than the average Californian. The research, as cited by the cover story of the November 2005 issue of National Geographic magazine, asserts that Adventists live longer due to not smoking or drinking, and their healthy, low-fat vegetarian diet rich in nuts and beans.
The official Seventh-day Adventist position on abortion is that "abortions for reasons of birth control, gender selection, or convenience are not condoned by the Church." At times, however, women may face exceptional circumstances that present serious moral or medical dilemmas, such as significant threats to the pregnant woman's life, serious jeopardy to her health, and pregnancy resulting from rape or incest, in these cases individuals are counseled to make their own decisions.
According to an official statement from the General Conference, heterosexual marriages are the only biblically ordained grounds for sexual intimacy. Seventh-day Adventists do not perform same-sex marriages and gay men cannot be ordained. An extramarital affair is one of the sanctioned grounds for a divorce. Masturbation has also been traditionally condemned as a sinful practice, contrary to God's design for the body as the temple of the Holy Spirit and for sex as a shared experience within marriage.
Structure, polity and institutions
The preferred abbreviation of "Seventh-day Adventist" is "Adventist", not "SDA".
Structure and polity
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is run by a form of democratic representation which mixes hierarchical (or episcopal), presbyterian and congregational elements. All church offices are elected from the grass-roots upwards and no positions are permanent.
The local church is the foundation level of organisational structure and is the public face of the church. Every baptised Adventist is a member of a local church and has voting powers within that church. A number of church offices exist within the local church, including the ordained positions of pastor, elder and deacon, as well as the largely bookkeeping positions of clerk and treasurer. All of these positions, except that of pastor, are appointed by the vote of a local church business meeting or elected committees.
Directly above the local church in structure is the local conference, mission or field. The conference is an organization of churches within a state, or part thereof, which appoints ministers, owns church land and organises the distribution of tithes and payments to ministers. The conference is also responsible for the appointment and ordination of ministerial staff.
Above the local conference is the union conference which embodies a number of conferences within a particular area.
The highest level of governance within the church structure is the General Conference which consists of 13 divisions, each assigned to various geographic locations. The General Conference is the church authority and has the final say in matters of conjecture and administrative issues. The General Conference is headed by the office of President, which as of 2006 is held by Jan Paulsen. The General Conference head office is in Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.
Each organization is governed by a general session which occurs at certain intervals. This is usually when general decisions are decided upon. The president of the General Conference, for instance, is elected at the General Conference Session every five years. Delegates to a session are appointed by organisations at a lower level. For example, each local church appoints delegates to a conference session.
The church manual gives provisions for each level of government to create educational, healthcare, publishing, and other institutions that are seen within the call of the Great Commission.
Seventh-day Adventists have had a long interest in education. The Adventist church runs one of the largest unified Protestant education systems in the world. It operates over 6,800 schools at all levels, including primary, secondary and tertiary levels, as well as some worker training institutions in about 145 countries worldwide. This education system includes almost 1,300,000 students and over 66,000 teachers. The Adventist educational program is comprehensive, encompassing "mental, physical, social, and spiritual health" with "intellectual growth and service to humanity" its goal.
- See also: List of Seventh-day Adventist colleges and universities
The Youth Department of the Seventh-day Adventist church runs an organisation for 10- to 16-year-old boys and girls called Pathfinders, which is similar to the Boy Scouts of America, except that membership is open to both boys and girls. Pathfinders exposes young people to such activities as camping, community service, personal mentorship, skills-based education, and trains them for leadership. For younger children, Adventurer, Eager Beaver, and Little Lambs clubs are programs that are available that feed into the Pathfinder program.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church has been active for over 100 years advocating for freedom of religion. In 1893 its leaders founded the International Religious Liberty Association, which is universal and non-sectarian. The Seventh-day Adventist Church State council serves to protect religious groups from legislation that may affect their religious practices. This is primarily achieved through advocacy. Recently the organisation has been fighting to pass legislation that will protect Seventh-day Adventist employees who wish to keep their Sabbath.
For over 50 years the church has been active in humanitarian aid through the work of the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA). ADRA works as a non-sectarian relief agency in 125 countries and areas of the world. ADRA has been granted General Consultative Status by the United Nations Economic and Social Committee. Worldwide ADRA employs over 4,000 people to help both provide relief in crises and development in situations of poverty.
The Biblical Research Institute is the official theological research center of the church. It has numerous articles available on its website.
The Ellen G. White Estate was established in 1915 at the death of Ellen White, as specified in her legal will. Its purpose is to act as custodian of her writings, and as of 2006 has 15 board members. The Ellen G. White Estate also hosts the official Ellen White website.
The church also has a number of extra-church organisations, which come under the umbrella of independent ministries. Some of these associated organizations are various health centers and hospitals, including Hugley Memorial Hospital in Fort Worth, Texas.
The church has two professional organizations for Adventist theologians that are affiliated with the denomination. The Adventist Society for Religious Studies (ASRS) was formed to foster community among Adventist theologians who attend the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL) and the American Academy of Religion. In 2006 ASRS voted to continue their meetings in the future in conjunction with SBL. During the 1980s the Adventist Theological Society (ATS) was formed by Jack Blanco to provide a forum for more conservative theologians to meet and is held in conjunction with the Evangelical Theological Society. ATS publishes the Journal of the Adventist Theological Society.
The Geoscience Research Institute was founded in 1958 to investigate the scientific evidence concerning origins.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church owns and operates many publishing companies around the world. Two of the largest are located in the United States - the Pacific Press Publishing Association and the Review and Herald Publishing Association.
The official church magazine is the Adventist Review, published by the Review and Herald Publishing Association. Another major magazine published by the church is the bimonthly Liberty Magazine, which addresses issues of religious freedom.
The primary prerequisite for membership in the Seventh-day Adventist Church is baptism by immersion. This, according to the church manual, should only occur after the candidate has undergone proper teaching on what the church believes. See also Adventist baptismal vow.
As of June, 2006, the church has 14,754,022 baptized members. Over 1,093,089 people joined the Adventist church in the twelve month period ending June 2006 (inclusive), through baptisms and professions of faith. The church is one of the world's fastest-growing organizations, primarily due to increases in membership in the developing nations. Depending on how the data was measured, it is said that church membership reached 1 million between 1955 and 1961, and grew to 5 million in 1986. At the turn of the 21st century the church had 10,782,042 members which grew to 14,487,989 members at the end of 2004, and 2005 statistics showed 14,399,072 members. It is believed that over 25 million worship weekly in churches. The church operates in 204 out of 230 countries and areas recognised by the United Nations.
Movements and offshoots
The church considers itself remarkably unified given its large geographic extent. However, as in any church certain groups, movements or subcultures exist with differing views on beliefs or lifestyle. Many of these groups have chosen to stay within the church, whereas others have formed offshoots or schisms.
A theological spectrum exists within Adventism, comparable to the fundamentalist-moderate-liberal spectrum in the wider Christian church and in other religions. Seventh-day Adventists vehemently resisted changes in the broader American culture. Both "progressive" and more "progressive" elements in the church were impacted by Fundamentalism. Denominational leaders including progressives such as A. G. Daniells and W. W. Prescott as well as other traditionalists discussed these issues at the 1919 Bible Conference. This conference would contribute to the polarization of Seventh-day Adventist theology. Some of the issues such as the atonement would become significant issues during the 1950s during a series of conferences between Adventist and evangelical leaders that led up to the publication of Questions on Doctrine in 1957.
On two opposite ends of a continuum are historic Adventists and progressive Adventists, with many variations inbetween.
Progressive Adventists tend to hold a different perspective on such areas as the investigative judgment, the prominence given to Ellen White's writings, creationism, and certain prophetic interpretations such as the remnant and Mark of the Beast. A significant number of Adventist scholars could be considered "progressive". Many progressive Adventists regard the 1980 Glacier View crisis as something of a rallying point.
Historic Adventists, also known as "traditional Adventists", are often characterized by their rejection of the formative 1957 book Questions on Doctrine, prepared as a result of dialogue between church representatives designated by the General Conference and the late evangelical Walter Martin. While this officially sanctioned book has been generally well received within Adventism, and has established the framework for mainstream Adventist theology in modern times, historic Adventists tend to view it as a compromise with evangelicalism and a departure from "traditional" Adventist teachings. The leading objector M. L. Andreasen eventually lost church employment as a result of his protests. In the recently published annotated edition of the book, editor George R. Knight writes:
- "The publication of Questions on Doctrine did more than any other single event in Adventist history to create what appear to be permanently warring factions within the denomination."
Historic Adventists place a great deal of emphasis on character perfection, and teach that Jesus Christ was born with a fallen nature.
Offshoots and schisms
Throughout the history of the denomination, there have been a number of groups who have left the church and formed their own movements. The best-known of these off-shoots is the Branch Davidians, themselves a schism within the larger Davidian movement. The Davidians formed in 1929, after Victor Houteff's message to the church in his book "The Shepherd's Rod" was rejected as being heretical. Few of Houteff's teachings were consistent with the mainstream views of the church. A succession dispute after Houteff's death in 1955 led to the formation of the Branches. Later, another ex-Adventist David Koresh (formerly Vernon Howell) led the Branch Davidians until he died in the conflagration in 1993 at the group's headquarters near Waco, Texas.
Following World War I, a group known as the Seventh Day Adventist Reform Movement was formed as a result of the actions of certain European church leaders during the war, who decided that it was acceptable for Adventists to take part in war. When attempts at reconciliation failed after the war, the group became organised as a separate church at a conference from July 14-20, 1925. The movement officially incorporated in 1949.
The most recent large-scale schism within Adventism was the Glacier View doctrinal crisis of 1980. This crisis centred around the 900-page research paper by Dr Desmond Ford entitled "Daniel 8:14, the Investigative Judgment, and the Kingdom of God". The paper questioned the church's position on the investigative judgment. The meetings at Glacier View rejected Ford's proposals. The schism caused by this rejection resulted in Ford being removed from teaching and having his ministerial credentials revoked. Many Adventists also left the church as a result. In the 25 years since, Ford has worked through the ministry of Good News Unlimited and has appeared on radio, television and in many print publications.
Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered individuals who are, or had been, practicing Seventh-day Adventists have formed a social network that is not officially associated to the church called SDA Kinship International .
These offshoot and schism groups are not affiliated with the Seventh-day Adventist Church in any way. They operate under their own system of beliefs and are considered to be entirely separate from the church.
A common discussion in evangelical circles is whether or not Seventh-day Adventist doctrines are far enough from orthodox or mainstream teaching to be qualified as cultic, in the academic sense of the word. Much of that criticism originated with the defection of Dudley Marvin Canright, an Adventist minister, in 1887. Canright published the book Seventh-day Adventism Renounced in 1889. Today many evangelical Christians follow the advice of Walter Martin from the Christian Research Institute. In the September 1956 issue of Eternity magazine, he and Donald Barnhouse declared that Seventh-day Adventists are a truly Christian group. In 1960 Martin published The Truth about Seventh-day Adventists. These publications marked a turning point in the way Adventism was viewed.
- "...it is perfectly possible to be a Seventh-day Adventist and be a true follower of Jesus Christ despite heterodox concepts..."
Some of the doctrines formerly considered "heterodox", such as conditional immortality (annihilationism) have become relatively mainstream in evangelicalism today.
A criticism is related to the level of authority that Ellen G. White is given and some of her teachings. It is believed that the authority White is given is contrary to the traditional Protestant sola scriptura view of the Bible, as the sole inspired source of authority. The Bible, Adventists argue, does not completely prohibit the belief in "new" prophets; rather, it allows for the belief in contemporary prophets as long as their credentials as such can be verified by simple tests found in John 3:20-21. The church has traditionally defended her writings as a manifestation of the spiritual gift of prophecy mentioned in the Bible itself (1 Corinthians 12, Ephesians 4), and subject to it. Ellen White never considered her writings as above or equal to the Scriptures. In her own words, they were a "lesser light to lead men and women to the greater light [the Bible]". In fact, in the book "Selected Messages, Volume 2", White states: "God and heaven alone are infallible", making the point that her writings do not resemble or qualify as infallible in any sense.
- History of the Seventh-day Adventist Church
- Seventh-day Adventist theology
- Ellen G. White
- 28 Fundamentals
- List of Seventh-day Adventists
- Christian vegetarianism
- ^ a b Office of Archives and Statistics. "Statistical Report" (PDF). Annual Council of the General Conference Committee; Silver Spring, Maryland, October 6-11, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-23.
- ^ Adventist Heritage: Miller Farm. Retrieved on 2006-06-08. Adapted from A. W. Spalding, Footprints, pp. 25-27
- ^ Schwarz, Richard W.; Greenleaf, Floyd  (2000). “The Great Advent Awakening”, Light Bearers, Revised Edition, Silver Spring, Maryland: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, Department of Education, 30-31. ISBN 0-8163-1795-X.
- ^ William Miller, Evidence from Scripture and History of the Second Coming of Christ, about the Year 1843: Exhibited in a Course of Lectures (Troy, N.Y., n.d.; Troy, N.Y.: Kemble & Hooper, 1836; Troy, N.Y.: Elias Gates, 1838; Boston: B. B. Mussey, 1840; Boston: J. V. Hines, 1842).
- ^ Fundamental Beliefs. Seventh-day Adventist Church. Retrieved on 2006-10-19.
- ^ Adventist Mission
- ^ ""Health"". Retrieved on 2006-10-06.
- ^ Buettner, Dan (November 2005). "The Secrets of Long Life". National Geographic 208 (5): 2-27. ISSN 0027-9358. Retrieved on 2006-06-06.
- ^ Anderson Cooper, Gary Tuchman (November 16, 2005). "CNN Transcripts on Living Longer". Retrieved on 2006-08-25.
- ^ Buettner, Dan (November 16, 2005). "The Secrets of Long Life". National Geographic. Retrieved on 2006-08-25.
- ^ Guidelines on Abortion (October 12, 1992). Retrieved on 2006-03-23.
- ^ Seventh-day Adventist Position Statement on Homosexuality. Seventh-day Adventist Church (1999-10-3). Retrieved on 2006-10-18.
- ^ a b c
- ^ http://www.adventistbiblicalresearch.org/
- ^ http://www.whiteestate.org/
- ^ Publishing work of the Seventh-day Adventist Church
- ^ a b Seventh-day Adventist World Church Statistics. Seventh-day Adventist Church (2006-05-10). Retrieved on 2006-10-18.
- ^ Seventh-day Adventist Church (2006-10-10). World Church: San Antonio, Texas Selected As 2015 GC Session Site. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-10-18.
- ^ Corson, Ron. "Progressive and Traditional Adventists Examined". Adventist Today. Retrieved on 2006-10-19.
- ^ Petersen, Floyd (Nov/Dec 1994). "Science Faculty Vary in Views on Creationism". Adventist Today 2 (6). Retrieved on 2006-10-19.
- ^ Koranteng-Pipim, Samuel (1996). Receiving the Word: How New Approaches to the Bible Impact Our Biblical Faith and Lifestyle. Berrien Springs, Michigan: Berean Books, 198-200. ISBN 1-890014-00-1. OCLC 36080195.
- ^ Nam, Julius (Spring 2006). Book review of Seventh-day Adventists Answer Questions on Doctrine: Annotated Edition by George R. Knight. Andrews University Seminary Studies 44 (1): 185-186.
- ^ (2003) George R. Knight: Questions on Doctrine: Annotated Edition. Berrien Springs, Michigan: Andrews University Press, v. ISBN 1-883925-41-X.
- ^ Fundamental beliefs of DSDA as compared with the ones of the Seventh-day Adventist Church
- ^ The Day Adventists Became Christians by Loren Dickinson
- ^ Walter Martin, Kingdom of the Cults Off-site Link (Bethany House, Minneapolis, Minnesota), Updated edition 1997, p.517.
Official Seventh-day Adventist websites
- Official website
- Seventh-day Adventist Church: Fundamental beliefs
- Biblical Research Institute The official Theological Research Center
- Ellen G. White Estate The official Ellen White website
- Adventist Review The official Seventh-day Adventist Church periodical
- Global Mission The official project giving website of the Adventist Church
- Seventh-day Adventist Church State Council Dedicated to Adventist principles of religious liberty
- Adventist Archives Search Historical Documents
- The Hope Channel The Official Television Network of the Church
- Liberty Magazine a bi-monthly magazine published by the church that addresses issues of religious freedom
- Geoscience Research Institute, set up to investigate origins
- ReligiousTolerance.org profile
- Religions in Canada, Department of National Defence, Government of Canada
- Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry
- Let Us Reason
- MacGregor Ministries
- The Ellen White Research Project
- Seventh-day Adventism - A Catholic + biblical perspective