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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Jainism (pronounced in English as [ˈdʒeɪ.nɪzm̩]), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म), is a religion and philosophy originating in ancient India. A minority in modern India, with growing immigrant communities in the United States, Western Europe, Africa, the Far East and elsewhere, Jains continue to sustain the ancient Shraman (श्रमण) or ascetic tradition.

Jains have significantly influenced the religious, ethical, political and economic spheres in India for about three millennia. Jainism stresses spiritual independence and equality of all life with particular emphasis on non-violence. Self-control (व्रत, vratae) is vital for attaining Keval Gyan and eventually moksha, or realization of the soul's true nature.

The Jain Sangha (संघ), or community, has four components: monks (साधु), nuns (sadhvi), laymen, (Shravakas श्रावक), and laywomen, (Shravikas). A Shravaka (श्रावक) follows basic principles or "Niyam".

Overview of Jain Dharma

Jain philosophy is based upon eternal, universal truths, according to its followers. Over time, these truths may lapse among humanity and then reappear through the teachings of enlightened humans, those who have reached enlightenment or total knowledge (Keval Gnan). Traditionally, in our universe and in our time, Lord Rishabha (ऋषभ) is regarded as the first to realize the truth. Lord Vardhaman (Mahavira, महावीर) was the last Tirthankar to attain enlightenment (599-527 BCE), preceded by twenty-three Tirthankars making a total of twenty four Tirthankars.

It is important to note that the above description stands true "in our universe and in our time" for Jains believe there have been infinite sets of 24 Tirthankars, and this will continue in the future. Hence, Jainism does not trace its origins to Rishabh Dev, the first, or Mahavir, the twenty-fourth Tirthankar.

Jainism has a very distinct idea underlying Tirthankar worship. The physical form is not to be worshipped, but it is the Gunas (virtues, qualities) which are praised. Tirthankars are only role-models, and sub-sects, like Sthanakvasi, refuse to worship statues.

Pre-Kushana Ayagapatta from Mathura
Pre-Kushana Ayagapatta from Mathura

Jains believe all souls are equal because they all possess the potential of being liberated and attaining Moksha. Here Jain Dharma is categorically different from Hindus and many other religions. Tirthankars and Siddhas are role models only because they have attained Moksha. Jains believe that every human is responsible for his/her actions and all living beings have an eternal soul, jīva. It insists that we live, think and act respectfully and honor the spiritual nature of all life. Jains view God as the unchanging traits of the pure soul of each living being, chiefly described as Infinite Knowledge, Perception, Consciousness, and Happiness (Anant Gyän, Anant Darshan, Anant Chäritra, and Anant Sukh). Jains do not believe in an omnipotent supreme being, creator or manager (karta), but rather in an eternal universe governed by natural laws and the interplay of its attributes (gunas) and matter (dravya).

Jains call meditation Samayik, a word in the Prakrit language roughly meaning "equanimity". The aim of Samayik is to transcend our daily experiences as "constantly changing" human beings, (Jiva), and identify with Atma, our "unchanging" reality. Samayik is begun by achieving a balance in time.

Jain sadhvis in Samayika
Jain sadhvis in Samayika

If this current moment is defined as a moving line between the past and the future, Samayik happens by being fully aware, alert and conscious in that moving time line when one experiences Atma, one's true nature, common to all life. Samayik is from 'samay' (time, in Prakrit). Samayik is especially significant during Paryushana, a special 8-day period during the monsoon.

Jain scriptures were written over a long period of time, but the most cited is the Tattvartha Sutra, or Book of Reality written by the monk-scholar, Umasvati almost 1800 years ago. The primary figures are Tirthankars. There are two main sects called Digambar and Shvetambar, and both believe in ahimsa (or ahinsā), asceticism, karma, sanskar, and jiva.

Compassion for all life, human and non-human, is central to Jainism. Human life is valued as a unique, rare opportunity to reach enlightenment: to kill any person, no matter what crime he may have committed, is considered unimaginably abhorrent. It is the only religion that requires monks and laity, from all its sects and traditions, to be vegetarian. Some Indian regions have been strongly influenced by Jains and often the majority of the local non-Jain population has also become vegetarian. History suggests that various strains of Hinduism became vegetarian due to strong Jain influences. In many towns, Jains run animal shelters. For example, Delhi has a bird hospital run by a Jain derasar, or temple.

Jainism's stance on nonviolence goes much beyond vegetarianism. Jains refuse food obtained with unnecessary cruelty. Many are vegan due to the violence of modern dairy farms. The Jain diet excludes most root vegetables, as they believe this destroys entire plants unnecessarily. If you eat apples, you do not destroy whole trees, but for root vegetables, whole plants are uprooted. Garlic and onions are avoided as these are seen as creating passion, meaning anger, hatred, jealousy. Devout Jains do not eat, drink, or travel after sunset (Chauvihar) and rise before sunrise.

Anekantavada, a foundation of Jain philosophy, literally means "Nonsingular Conclusivity", or equivalently, "Non-one-endedness". Anekantavad consists of tools for overcoming inherent biases in any one perspective on any topic or in reality in general. Another tool is The Doctrine of Postulation, Syādvāda. Anekantavad is defined as a multiplicity of viewpoints, for it stresses looking at things from others' perspectives.

Jains are usually very welcoming and friendly toward other faiths and often help with interfaith functions. Several non-Jain temples in India are administered by Jains. The Jain Heggade family has run the Hindu institutions of Dharmasthala, including the Sri Manjunath Temple, for eight centuries. Jain monks, like Acharya Tulsi and Acharya Sushil Kumar, have actively promoted harmony among sects to defuse tension.

A palpable presence in Indian culture, Jains have contributed to Indian philosophy, art, architecture, science, and to Mohandas Gandhi's politics, which led to the mainly non-violent movement for Indian independence.

Bhaktamara Stotra: ATirthankara is a shelter from ocean of rebirths
Bhaktamara Stotra: ATirthankara is a shelter from ocean of rebirths

Universal History and Jain Cosmology

Main article: Jain cosmology

According to Jain beliefs, the universe was never created, nor will it ever cease to exist. Time is divided into Utsarpinis (Progressive Time Cycle) and Avsarpinis (Regressive Time Cycle). An Utsarpini and a Avsarpini constitute one Time Cycle (Kalchakra). Every Utsarpini and Avsarpini is divided into six unequal periods known as Aras. During the Utsarpini half cycle, ethics, progress, happiness, strength, age, body, religion, etc., go from the worst conditions to the best. During the Avsarpini half-cycle, these notions deteriorate from the best to the worst. Jains believe we are currently in the fifth Ara of the Avsarpini phase, with approximately 19,000 years until the next Ara. After this Avsarpini phase, the Utsarpini phase will begin, continuing the infinite repetition of the Kalchakra.

Jains also believe that at the upswing of each time cycle, people will lose religion again. All things people want will be given by wish-granting trees (Kalpa-vriksha), and people will be born in sets of twins (Yuglik)with one boy and one girl who stay together all their lives. This can be seen as a symbol of an integrated human with male and female characteristics balanced.

Karmic Theory

Main article: Jain Karmic Theory (Theory of Karma in Jains)

The Jain religion places great emphasis on the theory of Karma. Essentially, it means that all jivas reap what they sow. A happy or miserable existence is influenced by actions in previous births. These results may not occur in the same life, and what we sow is not limited to physical actions. Physical, verbal, and mental activities play a role in future situations. Karma has long been an essential component of Jainism, and other Indian religions such as Buddhism and Hinduism.

Nine Tattvas

The backbone of the Jain philosophy, the nine Tattvas show how to attain salvation. Without knowing them, one cannot progress towards liberation. Jainism explains that Karma theory is intertwined with these nine principles. They are:

  1. Jiva - Souls and living things
  2. Ajiva - Non-living things
  3. Punya - Good karma {Counted as Padaarth}
  4. Paap - Bad karma {Counted as Padaarth}
  5. Asrava - Influx of karma
  6. Bandha - The bondage of karma
  7. Samvara - The stoppage of influx of karma
  8. Nirjara - Shedding of karma
  9. Moksha - Liberation or Salvation

Phonetically spelt as : in development

Some scriptures do not include Punya and Paap as Tattvas, as it is found that they consist of Karman particles, which are seen as Ajiv.

Beliefs and practices

The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahimsa, meaning non-violence. The word in the middle is "ahimsa." The wheel represents the dharmacakra, to halt the cycle of reincarnation through relentless pursuit of truth.
The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahimsa, meaning non-violence. The word in the middle is "ahimsa." The wheel represents the dharmacakra, to halt the cycle of reincarnation through relentless pursuit of truth.

Jain monks practice strict asceticism and strive to make this, or one of the coming births, their last. The laity, who pursue less rigorous practices, strive to attain rational faith and to do as much good as possible. Following strict ethics, the laity usually choose professions that revere and protect life and totally avoid violent livelihoods.

Jains believe that Devas (angels or celestial beings) cannot help jiva to obtain liberation. This must be achieved by individuals through their own efforts. In fact, devas themselves cannot achieve liberation until they reincarnate as humans and undertake the difficult act of removing karma. Their efforts to attain the exalted state of Siddha, the permanent liberation of jiva from all involvement in worldly existence, must be their own.

The Jain ethical code is taken very seriously. Five vows are followed by both laity and monks/nuns. These are:

  1. Ahimsa (Non-violence)
  2. Satya (truth)
  3. Asteya (non-stealing)
  4. Brahmacharya (Chastity)
  5. Aparigraha (Non-possession or Non-possessiveness)

For laypersons, 'chastity' means confining sexual experiences to marriage. For monks/nuns, it means complete celibacy. Nonviolence includes being vegetarian and some choose to be vegan. Jains are expected to be non-violent in thought, word and deed, towards humans and every living creature. Jain monks walk barefoot and sweep the ground in front of them to avoid killing any insect. Human life is deemed the highest and it is vital to never harm or upset another. While performing holy deeds, Svetambar Jains wear cloths (Muhapatti)over their mouths and noses to avoid saliva falling on texts or revered images.

Along with the Five Vows, Jains avoid harboring ill will towards others and practise forgiveness. They believe that atma (soul) can lead one to becoming Parmatma (liberated soul) and this must come from one's inner self. Jains refrain from all violence (Ahimsa) and have named 18 activities, called Päpsthänaks, that should be eradicated:

  1. Pranatipaat --- Violence
  2. Mrushavaad --- Untruth
  3. Adattadaan--- Theft
  4. Maithun --- Unchaste behaviour
  5. Parigraha --- Possessiveness
  6. Krodh --- Anger
  7. Mann --- Arrogance
  8. Maya --- Greed
  9. Lobh--- Deceit
  10. Raag --- Attachment
  11. Dvesh --- Hate
  12. Kalaha --- Arguing
  13. Abhyakhyan --- Accusation
  14. Paishoonya --- Gossip
  15. Par-parivad --- Criticism
  16. Rati-Arati --- Likes and Dislikes
  17. Maya-moso --- Malice
  18. Mithyya Darshan Shalya --- Wrong belief

Mahatma Gandhi was deeply influenced by Jain tenets such as peaceful, protective living, honesty and made it an integral part of his own philosophy[citation needed].

The fylfot (a.k.a. swastika) is among the holiest of Jain symbols. Worshippers use rice grains to create fylfot around the temple altar.
The fylfot (a.k.a. swastika) is among the holiest of Jain symbols. Worshippers use rice grains to create fylfot around the temple altar.

Jain Symbols

The holiest symbol is a simple swastika. Another incorporates a wheel on the palm of a hand.

Major Jain symbols include:

  • 24 Lanchhanas for Tirthankaras
  • The Ashtamangals
  • Triratna and Shrivatsa symbols
  • A Tirthankar's or Chakravarti's mother dreams
  • Dharmacakra and Siddha-chakra

Jain Fasting

Main article: Fasting in Jainism

Fasting is common among Jains and a part of Jain festivals. Most Jains fast at special times, during festivals, and on holy days. Paryushan is the most prominent festival, lasting eight days in Svetambara Jain tradition and ten days in Digambar Jain tradition during the monsoon. The monsoon is a time of fasting. However, a Jain may fast at any time, especially if he or she feels some error has been committed. Variations in fasts encourage Jains to do whatever they can to maintain whatever self control is possible for the individual.

Some Jains also revere the practice of Santhara, where a person who has completed all duties in this life ceases to eat or drink unto death. This has recently led to controversy in India, where in the State of Rajasthan, a lawyer has filed a writ petition seeking the High Court of Rajasthan to hold that Santhara is an illegal practice.

Jain literature

The oldest Jain literature is in Shauraseni and Ardha-Magadhi Prakrit (Agamas, Agama-Tulya, Siddhanta texts, etc). Many classical texts are in Sanskrit (Tatthavartha Sutra, Puranas, Kosh, Shravakachar, mathematics, Nighantus etc)."Aabhidhan Rajendra Kosh" written by Acharya Rajendrasuri, is only one available Jain encyclopedia or Jain dictionary to understand the Jain Prakrit,Sanskrit,and Ardha-Magadhi and other Jain languages, words,their use and references with in oldest Jain literature. Later Jain literature was written in Apabhramsha (Kahas, rasas, and grammars), Hindi (Chhahdhal, Mokshamarg Prakashak, and others), Tamil (Jivakacintamani, Kural, and others), and Kannada (Vaddaradhane and various other texts). The Tatthavartha Sutra, Padma Puran (Ram Charitra), Jin PravachanRahasya-Kosh, Chhahdhal and Shravakachars such as Ratnakarandak Shravakachar and Shravak Dharma Prakash may be downloaded at See Jain literature for more details.

Jain worship and rituals

Every day most Jains bow and say their universal prayer, the Navkar Mantra. Jains have built temples where images of Tirthankars are venerated. Jain rituals may be elaborate because symbolic objects are offered and Tirthankars praised in song. But some Jain sects refuse to enter temples or venerate images, considering them simply guides. Sadhumargi Svetambara Jains, such as the Terapanthi, regard holy statues or temples as totally unnecessary.

Jain rituals include:

  • Panch-kalyanak Pratishtha
  • Pratikraman
  • Guru-Vandana, Chaitya Vandan, and other sutras to honor ascetics.

Jain marriage ceremonies and family rites are usually variations of orthodox Hindu rituals.

Digambar and Shvetambar traditions

It is generally believed that the Jain sangha divided into two major sects, Digambar and Shvetambar, about 200 years after Mahāvīr's nirvan. Some historians believe there was no clear division until the 5th century. The best available information indicates that the chief Jain monk, Acharya Bhadrabahu, foresaw famine and led about 12,000 Digambar followers to southern India. Twelve years later, they returned to find the Shvetambar sect and in 453, the Valabhi council edited and compiled traditional Shvetambar scriptures.

Digambar monks do not wear clothes because they believe clothes are like other possessions, increasing dependency and desire for material things, and desire for anything ultimately leads to sorrow.
Shvetambar monks wear white seamless clothes for practical reasons and believe there is nothing in Jain scripture that condemns wearing clothes. Sadhvis (nuns) of both sects wear white. These differing views arise from different interpretations of the same holy books. There are minor differences in the enumeration and validity of each sect's literature.
Digambars believe that women cannot attain moksha, while Shvetambars believe that women may certainly attain liberation and that Mallinath, a Tirthankar, was female.
Digambars believe that Mahavir was not married while Shvetambars believe the princely Mahavir was married and had a daughter.
Apart from doubts about women attaining moksha, another difference is in the first Jain prayer, the Navkar Mantra. Sthanakvasis and Digambars believe that only the first five lines should be recited, whereas Svetambaras believe all nine should be. Other differences are minor and not based on major points of doctrine.

Excavations at Mathura revealed many Jain statues from the Kushana period. Tirthankars are represented without clothes and monks, with cloth wrapped around the left arm, are identified as 'ardha-phalak' and mentioned in some texts. The Yapaniaya sect, believed to have originated from the Ardha-phalak, follows Digambar nudity, along with several Shvetambar beliefs.

Both groups are subdivided into sects, such as Sthanakvasi, Terapanthi, Deravasi, and Bisapantha. Some are 'murtipujak' (image worshippers) while 'non murtipujak', refuse statues or images. Most simply call themselves Jains and follow general traditions rather than specific sectarian practices.

In 1974, a committee with representatives from every sect compiled a new text called the Samana Suttam.

Geographical spread and influence

Jain temple in Ranakpur
Jain temple in Ranakpur

Jain philosophy and culture have been a major cultural, philosophical, social and political force since the dawn of civilization in Asia, and its ancient influence has been traced beyond the borders of modern India into the Middle Eastern and Mediterranean regions. At various times, Jainism was found all over South Asia including Sri Lanka and what are now Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Afghanistan.

The pervasive influence of Jain culture and philosophy in ancient Bihar possibly gave rise to Buddhism. The Buddhists have always maintained that during the time of Buddha and Mahavir, Jainism was already an ancient and deeply entrenched faith and culture in the region. For a discussion about the connections between Jainism and Buddhism see Jainism and Buddhism.

Over several thousand years, Jain influence on Hindu philosophy and religion has been considerable, while Hindu influence on Jain temple worship and rituals may be observed in certain Jain sects. For a detailed discussion see Jainism and Hinduism.

With 10 to 12 million followers,[1] Jainism is among the smallest of the major world religions, but in India its influence is much more than these numbers would suggest. Jains live throughout India; Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Gujarat have the largest Jain population among Indian states. Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh have relatively large Jain populations. There is a large following in Punjab, especially in Ludhiana and Patiala, and there were many Jains in Lahore (Punjab's historic capital) and other cities before the Partition of 1947, after which many fled to India.

There are 85 Jain communities in different parts of India and around the world. They may speak local languages or follow different rituals but essentially follow the same principles.

Outside India, the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) have large Jain communities today. Jainism is presently a strong faith in the United States and several Jain temples have been built there. American Jainism accommodates all the sects. Smaller Jain communities exist in Nepal, South Africa, Japan, Singapore, Australia, Fiji, and Suriname.

Jain contributions to Indian culture

While the Jains are only 0.4% of the Indian population, their contributions to culture and society in India are considerable. Jainism has influenced Gujarat most significantly. The earliest known Gujarati text, Bharat-Bahubali Ras, was written by a Jain monk. Some of the most important people in Gujarat's Jain history were Acharya Hemachandra Suri and his pupil, the Chalukya ruler Kumarpal.

Jains are both among the wealthiest of Indians and the most philanthropic. They run numerous schools, colleges and hospitals and are some of the most important patrons of the Somapuras, the traditional temple architects in Gujarat. Though Jainism is slowly declining in India, it is rapidly expanding in the West as non-Indians convert to the religion.

Jains have greatly influenced Gujarati cuisine. Gujarat is predominantly vegetarian, and its food has a mild aroma as onions and garlic are omitted.

Jains encourage their monks to do research and obtain higher education. Jain monks and nuns, particularly in Rajasthan, have published numerous research monographs. This is unique among Indian religious groups and parallels Christian clergy.

The 2001 census states Jains are India's most literate community and India's oldest libraries at Patan and Jaisalmer are preserved by Jain institutions.


Jains have contributed to India's classical and popular literature. In Kannada, almost the entire early literature is of Jain origin.

  • Some of the oldest known books in Hindi and Gujarati were written by Jain scholars.
  • Several Tamil classics are written by Jains or with Jain beliefs and values as the core subject.
  • Practically all the known texts in the Apabhramsha language are Jain works.

Jainism and Indian archaeology

Archaeological evidence such as various seals and other artifacts from the Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3000–1500 BC) has been cited by some scholars as attesting to the faith's roots in Proto-Indo-Iranian India, before the split of Iranians and Indo-Aryans.

Decipherment of Brahmi by James Prinsep in 1788 enabled the reading of ancient inscriptions in India, which established the antiquity of Jainism. Discovery of Jain manuscripts, a process that continues today, has added significantly to retracing the history of Jainism.

Jain archaeological findings are often from Maurya, Sunga, Kushan, Gupta, Kalachuries, Rashtrakut, Chalukya, Chandel and Rajput and later periods.

Several western and Indian scholars have contributed to the reconstruction of Jain history. They include western historians like Bühler, Jacobi, and Indian scholars like Iravatham Mahadevan, who has worked on Tamil Brahmi inscriptions.

Holy sites

Palitana Tirtha
Palitana Tirtha
Main article: List of Jain Temples (Holy Sites of Jains)
  • Locations in West
    • Jain Temples in the West
    • Jain Community Associations/ Study Centres in the West

Holy days

  • Paryushan Parva, 10/8 (Digambar/Shwetambar) day fasts, and for observe, 10/8 important principles.
  • Mahavir Jayanti, Lord Mahavir's birth.
  • Diwali, commemorates Lord Mahavir attainment of nirvan.
  • Kshamavaani, The day for asking everyone's forgiveness.
  • Shawani Hirshnadi, The celebration of Hirsh's triumph over evil.

The Jain Calendar gives the dates for major Jain festivals, vrats and fairs.

The Legal Status of Jainism in India

Main article: Legal Status of Jainism as a Distinct Religion

In 2005, the Supreme Court of India declined to issue a writ of Mandamus towards granting Jains the status of a religious minority throughout India. The Court noted that Jains have been declared a minority in 5 states already, and left it to the rest of the States to decide on the minority status of Jain religion.[1]

U.P. Basic Shiksha Parishad Judgment

In 2006, the Supreme Court opined that "Jain Religion is indisputably not a part of the Hindu Religion". (para 25, Committee of Management Kanya Junior High School Bal Vidya Mandir, Etah, U.P. v. Sachiv, U.P. Basic Shiksha Parishad, Allahabad, U.P. and Ors., Per Dalveer Bhandari J., Civil Appeal No. 9595 of 2003, decided On: 21.08.2006, Supreme Court of India) [2]

Jainism and other religions: Links

South Asia has a rich history of diverse philosophies. Connections among these are discussed at:

  • Jainism and Hinduism
  • Jainism and Buddhism
  • Jainism and Sikhism

Even though Jainism is of Indian origin, it shared some principles with the Hellenic tradition, specially with Stoic and Pythagorean philosophies of Europe. Comparisons with Abrahamic religions can be found at:

  • Jainism and Christianity
  • Jainism and Judaism
  • Jainism and Islam

See also

  • Asceticism
  • List of Jains
  • Veganism
  • American Jainism
  • Jain community
    • Tamil Jains
    • Tulu Jains
    • Jainism in Delhi
    • Jainism in Gujarat
    • Jainism in Rajasthan
    • Jains of Maharashtra
    • Jainism in Mumbai
    • Jainism in Kerala
  • Jain Cosmology
  • Jains in India according to 2001 census
  • List of Jain Temples (Holy Sites of Jains)
  • Fasting in Jains (Jain Fasting)
  • Santhara
  • Jain Karmic Theory (Theory of Karma in Jains)
  • Legal Status of Jainism as a Distinct Religion
  • Jain rituals and festivals
  • Jain Temples



  • Jain, Duli C. (Editor), Studies In Jainism: Primer, Jain Study Circle, 1997.
  • Parik, Vastupal Jainism and the New Spirituality, Peace Publications, 2002.

Detailed Introduction:

  • Shah, Natubhai, Jainism : The World of Conquerors, Motilal Banarsidass, 2004.
  • Jaini, Padmanabh S., Jaina Path of Purification, Motilal Banarsidass, 2001.
  • Titze, Kurt, Jainism : A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-Violence, Mohtilal Banarsidass, 1998.
  • Wiley, Kristi, Historical Dictionary of Jainism, Scarecrow Press, 2004.
  • Mishra, Mamta, Bharatiya Darshan, Kala Prakashan, Varanasi, 2000.
  • Lawrence A. Babb, Absent Lord, University of California Press, 1996.
  • Vallely, Anne, Guardians of the Transcendent, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002. (Jain nuns)
  • Kelting, Whitney, Singing to the Jinas, New York: Oxford, 2001. (Jain laywomen)
  • The Assembly of Listeners, edited by Michael Carrithers and Caroline Humphrey, 5-14. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Clermont & Dix Edited by Dilip Surana Jainisme and temples of Mount Abu and Ranakpur. Jodhpur India Gyan Gaurav publishers Revised print 2006

Specialized sources:

  • Mary Pat Fisher, Living Religions (5th Edition), 2003, p.130
  • Bhaskar, Bhagchandra Jain, Jainism in Buddhist Literature. Alok Prakashan: Nagpur, 1972.
  • Campbell, Joseph, Oriental Mythology, 1962.
  • Nakamura, Hajime, Gotama Buddha: A Biography Based on the Most Reliable Texts. Kosei Publishing: Tokyo, 2000.
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Cited In The Article:

  1. ^ Basic Faith Group Information

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