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Water polo is a team water sport, which can be best described as a combination of swimming, football (soccer), basketball, ice hockey, rugby and wrestling. A team consists of six field players and one goalkeeper. The goal of the game resembles that of football (soccer): to score as many goals as possible, each goal being worth one point.
A perfect water polo athlete can be best described as having the over-arm accuracy of a baseball pitcher, the vertical leap of a volleyball player, the toughness of a rugby player, the endurance of a cross-country runner and the strategy of a chess player.
- Swimming: Water polo is a team water sport, so swimming is a necessary skill. Field players must swim end to end of a 30 meter pool non-stop many times during a game. The freestyle stroke used in water polo differs from the usual swimming style in that water polo players swim with the head out of water at all times to observe the field. Backstroke is used by defending field players to track advancing attackers and by the goalkeeper to track the ball after passing. Water polo backstroke differs from swimming backstroke; the player sits almost upright in the water, using eggbeater leg motions with short arm strokes to the side instead of long straight arm strokes. This allows the player to see the play and quickly switch positions.
- Ball handling skills: As all field players are only allowed to touch the ball with one hand at a time, they must develop the ability to catch and throw the ball with either hand and also the ability to catch a ball from any direction, including across the body using the momentum of the incoming ball. Experienced water polo players can catch and release a pass or shot with a single motion.
- Treading water: The most common form of water treading is generally referred to as the "egg-beater", named because the circular movement of the legs resembles the motion of an egg-beater. Egg beater is used for most of the match as the players cannot touch the bottom of the pool. The advantage of egg-beater is that it allows the player to maintain a constant position to the water level, and uses less energy than other forms of treading water such as the scissor kick, which result in the player bobbing up and down. It can be used vertically or horizontally. Horizontal egg-beater is used to resist forward motion of an attacking player. Vertical eggbeater is used to maintain a position higher than the opponent. By kicking faster for a brief period the player can get high out of the water (as high as their suit—below their waistline) for a block, pass, or shot. Eggbeater is also used in a water polo stroke style called 'spider' where an attacking or defending player can legally ward off opposing players with quick, sharp strokes of the arms, elbows high and wide and egg-beater legs as wide as possible, creating an area that the opposing players cannot enter.
- Reflexes and Awareness: At higher levels of the sport the pace of play rapidly increases, so that anticipation and mental preparation is important. "Field sense" (i.e. staying aware of the surroundings) is a major advantage in scoring, even if a player lacks the speed of an opponent. Dr. Richard Hunkler, national water polo coach of the year in 1993 and 1994, has compared this aspect of the game to chess.
- See also: Glossary of Water Polo
- Note: Rules below reflect the latest FINA Water Polo Rules 2005-2009.
Seven players from each team (six field players and a goalkeeper) are allowed in the playing area of the pool during game play. Visiting team field players wear numbered white caps, and home team field players wear dark caps; both goalies wear quartered red caps, numbered "1". Both teams may substitute players. During game play, players enter and exit in front of their team bench; when play is stopped, they may enter or exit anywhere.
The game is divided into four periods; the length depends on the level of play:
The game clock is stopped when the ball is not 'in play' e.g. between a foul being committed and the free throw being taken and between a goal being scored and the restart. This causes the average quarter to last around 12 minutes 'real time'. A team may not have possession of the ball for longer than 30 seconds without shooting for the goal or an opponent being ejected. After this time, possession passes to the other team. However, if a team shoots the ball within the allotted 30 seconds, and regains control of the ball, the shot clock is reset to 30 seconds. Each team may call two one minute timeouts in the four periods of regulation play, and one timeout if the game goes into overtime. During game play, only the team in possession of the ball may call a timeout.
Dimensions of the water polo pool are not fixed and can vary between 20 x 10 and 30 x 20 meters. Minimum water depth must be least 1.8 meters (6 feet), but this is often waived for age group or high school games if such a facility is unavailable. The goals are 3 meters wide and 90 centimetres high. Water polo balls are generally yellow and of varying size and weight for juniors, women and men. The middle of the pool (analogous to the 50 yard line in football) is designated by a white line. In the past, the pool was divided by 7 and 4 meter lines (distance out from the goal line). This has been merged into one 5 meter line since the 2005-2006 season. Along the side of the pool, the center area between the 5 meter lines is marked by a green line. The "five meters" line is where penalties are shot and it is designated by a yellow line. The "two meters" line is designated with a red line and no player of the attacking team can be inside this line without the ball.
One player on each team is designated the goalkeeper, assigned to deflect or catch any shots at goal. The goalkeeper is the only player who can touch the ball with both hands at any time, and, in a shallow pool, the only player allowed to stand on the bottom.
Players can move the ball by throwing it to a teammate or swimming while pushing the ball in front of them. Players are not permitted to push the ball underwater when being tackled, or push or hold an opposition player unless that player is holding the ball. Fouls are very common, and result in a free throw during which the player cannot shoot at the goal unless beyond the "5 meter" line. Water polo players need remarkable stamina due to the considerable amount of holding and pushing that occurs during the game, some allowed, some unseen or ignored by the referees (usually underwater). Water polo is one of the most physically demanding of all sports; action is continuous, and players commonly swim 3 kilometers or more during four periods of play.
Water polo is a game requiring excellent eye-hand coordination. The ability to handle and pass the ball flawlessly separates the good teams from the great teams. A pass thrown to a field position player is preferably a "dry pass" (meaning the ball does not touch the water) and allows for optimal speed when passing from player to player with fluid motion between catching and throwing. A "wet pass" is a deliberate pass into the water, just out of reach of the offensive player nearest the goal (the "hole set") and his defender. The hole-set can then lunge towards the ball and out of the water to make a shot or pass. A goal may be scored by any part of the body except a clenched fist.
Scoring in water polo can be quite unique compared to other sports. For example, a "skip" shot is fired intentionally at the water with considerable force so it will bounce back up. The ball usually hits the water within a metre of the net, where the goalie cannot anticipate and block the shot. Another shot, called a "lob" is thrown with a large vertical arc. Often these shots are more difficult to stop than a faster shot, as they are usually thrown across a net at such an angle the goalie must not only shift position from one side of the net to the other quickly, but also at the same time propel out of the water more than for other shots. Pump faking is effective when using any kind of shot. The player gets in the position to shoot but stops halfway through his motion, causing the defending goalkeeper to commit too early to block the subsequent shot.
The referee's whistle for a foul is heard much more in water polo than in other sports. A defender will often foul the player with the ball as a tactic to disrupt the opponent's ball movement. Play continues uninterrupted in most cases, but the attacker must now pass the ball instead of advancing or taking a shot. However, as in ice hockey, a player caught committing a major foul, is sent out of the playing area with his team a man-down for 20 seconds, but may return sooner if a goal is scored or his team regains possession. If the foul is an unsportsmanlike act, however, the player is ejected for the remainder of the game with substitution by another teammate. A player, coach or spectator can also be ejected for arguing with the referees. During a man up situation resulting from an ejection foul, the attacking team can expect to score by passing around to move the goalkeeper out of position. A player that has been ejected three times must sit out the whole match with substitution.
There are six field player positions and a goalkeeper on each team. Unlike most common team sports, there is no positional play; field players often will fill several positions throughout the game as situations demand. In high school most teams assign positions to certain players and it is less likely for the situations to switch due to the lower level of competitiveness. Players who are skilled at several offensive or defensive roles are called utility players. Utility players tend to come off of the bench, though this isn't absolute. An example is Thalia Munro, who played for UCLA and the US National Team, among the team leaders in goals, steals and assists. Certain body types are more suited for particular positions, and left-handed players are especially coveted, allowing teams to launch 2-sided attacks.
The offensive positions include: 1 center forward (a.k.a. hole set, 2-meter offense or pit-man), 2 wings, 2 drivers (also called "flats"), and 1 "point" man. The point man directs the attack, and on defense is known as hole D or 2-meter defense, defending the opposing team's center forward. The wings, drivers and point are often called the perimeter players. The most basic positional set up is known as a 3-3, due to the fact that there are two lines both containing 3 players. Another set up is known as a umbrella, or mushroom, because the perimeter players form the shape of an umbrella or mushroom around the goal with the center forward as the handle or stalk. The center forward, known by players as hole set or 2-meter is the center player in the middle of the umbrella who is closest to the opposing teams goal. This player sets up in front of the opposing team's goalie and usually scores the most individually or contributes most often to initiating plays. The five perimeter players often swim the most and interchange their positions several times during a single offensive play. They contribute to the actual execution of plays, and cumulatively score the most points for the team. The point player's position provides opportunities to pass to teammates and communicate among the offense, like the point guard in basketball. The center forward also plays a big role offensively because they sit closest to the goal and usually attempt "backhands" as frequently as possible.
Defensive positions are often the same, but just switched from offense to defense. Defense can be played man-to-man or zone. The opposing center forward (hole set) is often double-teamed because of his position closest to the goal. From the center forward position, a backhand shot is difficult to defend because these shots are explosive and directed into the corners of the goal. In zone defense, players defend an area of the pool. A strong shooter or good passer can be double-teamed by the defense, known as "sloughing".
The goalkeeper is given several privileges above those of the other players, but only if he or she is within the five meter area in front of his goal:
- The ability to touch the ball with two hands.
- The ability to strike the ball with a clenched fist.
- The ability to touch the bottom of the pool. (pool depth permitting)
The goalkeeper also has one limitation that other players do not have: he or she cannot cross the half-distance line.
At the start of each period, teams line up on their own goal line. Three players go either side of the goal; one player and the goalkeeper start in the goal. At the referee's whistle, both teams swim to midpoint of the field (known as the sprint or the swim-off); the referee drops the ball near the side of the pool. The first team to recover the ball becomes the attacker until a goal is scored or the defenders recover the ball. After a goal is scored, the teams line up anywhere within their halves of play, but usually along the midpoint of the pool. Play resumes when the team not scoring the goal puts the ball in play by passing it to a teammate.
Advancing the ball
When the offense takes possession of the ball, the strategy is to advance the ball down the field of play and to score a goal. Players can move the ball by throwing it to a teammate or swimming while pushing the ball in front of them ("dribbling"). If an attacker uses his arm to push away a defending player and free up space for a pass or shot, the referee will rule a turnover and the defense will take possession of the ball. If an attacker advances inside the 2-meter line without the ball or before the ball is inside the 2-meter area, he is ruled off side and the ball is turned over to the defense. This is often overlooked if the attacker is well to the side of the pool or when the ball is at the other side of the pool.
Setting the ball
The key to the offense is to accurately pass (or "set") the ball into the center forward or hole set, positioned directly in front of the goal (the hole). The point player normally starts with the ball and throws the hole set a ""wet pass"" that hits the water just outside of the hole set's reach. The hole set attempts to take possession of the ball, to shoot at the goal, or to draw a foul from his defender. A minor foul is called if his defender (called the "hole D") attempts to impede movement before the hole set has possession. The referee indicates the foul with one short whistle blow and points one hand to the spot of the foul and the other hand in the direction of the attack of the team to whom the free throw has been awarded. The hole set then has a "reasonable amount of time" (typically a three seconds) to re-commence play by making a free pass to one of the other players. The defensive team cannot hinder the hole set until the free throw has been taken, but the hole set cannot shoot a goal once the foul has been awarded until the ball has been played by at least one other player. If the hole set attempts a goal without the free throw, the goal is not counted and the defense takes possession of the ball, unless the shot is made outside the 5-meter line. As soon as the hole set has a free pass, the other attacking players attempt to swim or drive away from their defenders towards the goal. The players at the flat position will attempt to set a screen (also known as a pick) for the driver. If a driver gets free from a defender, the player calls for the pass from the hole set and attempts a shot at the goal.
Man up (6 on 5)
If a defender interferes with a free throw, holds or sinks an attacker who is not in possession or splashes water into the face of an opponent, the defensive player is excluded from the game for twenty seconds (informally called 'kicked out' or a major foul). The attacking team typically positions 4 players on the 2 meter line, and 2 players on 5 meter line (4-2), passing the ball around until an open player attempts a shot. Other formations include a 3-3 (two lines of three attackers each) or arc (attackers make an arc in front of the goal and one offensive player sits in the 'hole' or 'pit' in front of the goal). The five defending players try to pressure the attackers, block shots and prevent a goal being scored for the 20 seconds while they are a player down. The other defenders can only block the ball with one hand to help the goalie. The defensive player is allowed to return immediately if the offense scores, or if the defense recovers the ball before the twenty seconds expires.
Five meter penalty
If a defender commits a foul within the five meter area that prevents a likely goal, the attacking team is awarded a penalty throw or shot. An attacking player lines up on the five meter line in front of the opposing goal. No other player may be in front of him or within 2 meters of his position. The defending goalkeeper must be between the goal posts. The referee signals with a whistle and by lowering his arm, and the player taking the penalty shot must immediately throw the ball with an uninterrupted motion toward the goal. Penalty shots are often successful, but the goalkeeper who blocks a "five meter" can expect a chorus of cheers from the stands.
A shot is successful if the ball completely passes between the goal posts and underneath the crossbar. If a shot bounces off a goal post back into the field of play, the ball is rebounded by the players and the shot clock is reset. If the shot goes outside the goal and on to the deck (outside the field of play) then the ball is automatically recovered by the defense. If the goalie, however, is the last to touch the ball before it goes out of play behind the goal line, or if a defender purposely sends the ball out, then the offense receives the ball at the two meter line for a corner throw much like a corner kick in soccer. When the goalie blocks a shot, the defense may gain control of the ball, and make a long pass to a teammate who stayed on his offensive end of the pool when the rest of his team was defending. This is called cherry-picking or sea gulling.
If the score is tied at the end of regulation play, two overtime periods of three minutes each are played. If the tie is not broken after two overtime periods, a penalty shootout will determine the winner. Five players and a goalkeeper are chosen by the coaches of each team. Players shoot from the 5 meter line alternately at either end of the pool in turn until all five have taken a shot. If the score is still tied, the same players shoot alternately until one team misses and the other scores. Overtime periods are common in tournament play due to the high level of skill of these superior teams; Team USA defeated Hungary in the 2004 Women's Water Polo World League Super Final when US goalie Jackie Frank made 2 stops on penalty shots.
On defense, the players work to regain possession of the ball and prevent a goal. The defense attempts to knock away or steal the ball from the offense or commit a foul in order to stop an offensive player from taking a goal shot. The defender attempts to stay between the attacker and the goal, a position known as inside water.
If an offensive player, such as the hole set (center forward), has possession of the ball in front of the goal, the defensive player tries to steal the ball or keep the center from shooting or passing. If the defender cannot, he may intentionally commit a foul. The hole set then has a free throw but must pass the ball off to another offensive player, rather than making a shot at the goal. Defensive perimeter players may also intentionally cause a minor foul and then move toward the goal, away from their attacker, who must take a free throw. This technique, called sloughing, allows the defense an opportunity to double-team the hole set and possibly steal the inbound pass. The referee may refrain from declaring a foul, if in his judgment this would give the advantage to the offender's team. This is known as the Advantage Rule.
Minor fouls (ordinary fouls) occur when a player impedes or otherwise prevents the free movement of an opponent who is not holding the ball, including swimming on the opponent’s shoulders, back or legs. The most common is when a player reaches over the shoulder of an opponent in order to knock the ball away while in the process hindering the opponent. Offensive players may be called for a foul by pushing off a defender to provide space for a pass or shot. The referee indicates the foul with one short whistle blow and points one hand to the spot of the foul and the other hand in the direction of the attacking team, who retain possession. The attacker must make a free pass without undue delay to another offensive player. If the foul has been committed outside the 5-meter line, the offensive player may also attempt a direct shot on goal, but the shot must be a clean one. If the offensive player fakes a shot and then shoots the ball, it is considered a turnover. If the same defender repetitively makes minor fouls, referees will exclude that player for 20 seconds. To avoid an ejection, the hole defender may foul twice, and then have a wing defender switch with him so that the defense can continue to foul the hole man without provoking an exclusion foul. The rule was altered to allow repeated fouls without exclusions, but is often still enforced by referees.
Major fouls (exclusion fouls) are committed when the defensive player pulls the offensive player away from the ball before the offensive player has had a chance to take possession of the ball. This includes dunking (sinking in FINA rules), intentional splashing, pulling back, swimming on the other player's back, or otherwise preventing the offensive player from preserving his advantage. A referee signals a major foul by two short whistle bursts and indicates that the player must leave the field of play and move to the penalty area for twenty seconds. The referee will first point to the player who commits the foul and will blow the whistle. then they will point to the ejection corner and blow the whistle again. The player must move to the penalty area without impacting the natural game play. If the player does not leave the field of play, the player will be kicked out for the remaining time of the game with substitution. The remaining five defenders, to cover the six attackers on a man up situation, usually set up in a zone defense in front of their goal. The attacking team can expect to score, by adopting a 4-2 or 3-3 formation, and moving the goalkeeper out of position. A player that has been ejected three times must sit out the whole match with substitution, much like the six personal fouls in basketball.
A misconduct foul is a unsportsmanlike act. For unacceptable language, violent or persistent fouls, taking part in the game after being excluded or showing disrespect, a player is ejected for the remainder of the game with substitution after 20 seconds have elapsed. This type of foul is often called a roll because the referee signals the foul by rolling his hands around one another. If a player commits a violent foul with intention to harm, the player is ejected from the game without substitution. The opponents are awarded a penalty shot, and the ejected player's team plays one man down for the next four minutes of game time. This type of foul is called a brutality and is signaled by the referee by crossing the arms in the form of an X.
A penalty shot is awarded when a major foul is committed inside the 5-meter line and the offensive player had an opportunity to score, or a goal was prevented by the foul. This usually means that the offensive player is in front of and facing the goal. The penalty shot is attempted from 5 meters. Any defenders flanking the player taking the shot must be no closer than 2 meters. The goalkeeper must be on the goal line. In high school rules, the goalie must keep their hips even with the goal line. They are allowed to lean their upper body over in order to kick up higher. the referee blows the whistle and the player must shoot immediately.
Even with good backup from the rest of the defenders, stopping attacks can prove very difficult if the goalkeeper remains in the middle of the goal. The most defensible position is along a semicircular line connecting the goalposts and extending out in the center. Depending on the ball carrier's location, the goalie is positioned along that semicircle roughly a meter out of the goal to reduce the attacker's shooting angle. The goalkeeper stops using his or her hands to tread water once the opponent enters the 7 metre mark and starts treading water much harder, elevating the body, arms ready for the block. Finally the goalie tries to block the ball down, which is often hard for the longer reaches, but prevents an offensive rebound and second shot. As is the case with other defensive players, a goalkeeper who aggressively fouls an attacker in position to score can be charged with a penalty shot for the other team. The goalkeeper can also be ejected for twenty seconds if a major foul is committed.
Ball handling skills
When passing or shooting, the hips of the player should line up in the direction in which the ball is thrown. When passing, shooting or receiving a ball, the player rotates the whole of the upper body, using egg-beater to keep the lower body in the same position, then releasing the ball with hips lined up in the direction of the throw. For extra accuracy and speed when releasing the ball, a player uses body momentum to follow through at the end of the throw.
There are two basic passes in waterpolo: the "dry" pass and the "wet" pass. When passing to a field position player, a dry pass (meaning the ball doesn't touch the water) is thrown a few inches above the head of the catching player and to the left or right side depending on the receiver's dominant hand. The dry pass allows for optimal speed when passing from player to player, who do not have to pick the ball up out of the water to throw. A fluid motion between catching and throwing is the goal. An expert thrower's hand creates no spin, making the ball easier to catch. In order for the player to catch the ball above their head, they must egg beater harder which brings their body higher out of the water.
The wet pass is a deliberate pass into the water. This is usually done when making a pass into the hole set. To make a successful wet pass, the ball lands just out of reach of the offensive player and defensive team. The hole set can then lunge towards the ball and out of the water to make a shot or pass. This is a very effective offensive strategy if a team has a strong hole set. The only thing the passer must look out for is a possible double-team on the hole set. If that happens the player must look for an open player or pass the ball closer to the hole set to avoid a turnover.
Shots usually succeed when the goalie is out of position. At long range from the goal, shots are easy for goalkeepers to stop, but closer ones are very difficult. Close-range shots tend to be harder to come by (since players close to the goalpost are usually under very great pressure), but in these situations usually a soft tap-in is enough to beat the goalkeeper. Close-range shots may come from the centre-forward in open play, utilizing either quick backhand-shots, sweep-shots, layout or other creative shooting positions.
There are three basic outside water shooting techniques. The first is a straight forward power shot. Top level water polo players can generate ball speeds between 50-90 km/h (30-56 mph). The player propels his body out of the water and uses his momentum to shoot the ball into the net. Though very powerful, this shot requires the precise targeting. If the shot is off the mark, the ball will either be blocked by the goalie or rebound off the goal post. Another shooting technique is the bounce shot or skip shot. Instead of shooting directly into the net, the player throws the ball at an angle directly into the water. If done properly and with enough force, the ball will bounce off the water and into the goal. The bounce shot usually takes the goalie by surprise. But, if done from far enough away the goalie can plan to block the ball low on the water instead of bringing the hands up in the air. The lob shot is high arching shot intended to pass over the goalie's hands and under the crossbar. It is most effective taken from an angle on either side of the goal post; this provides a large area behind the goalie into which the lob can drop on its downward arc. This shot confuses the goalie and usually forces the goalie to kick up out of the water too early and miss the block.
Outside water shots require a player to cease swimming, and usually occur outside the 2 meter zone. A player who has inside water and has a defender approaching may not want to pause and let his defender catch up. In these situations, which can often result from driving after a foul has been committed on the hole set or during a close fast break counterattack, players may perform an inside water shot. The t-shot or bat shot is executed by scooping the ball with the non-dominant hand, "loading" the ball to the dominant hand, and propelling the ball forward. The pop shot is a quick shot executed by cupping the ball with the dominant hand from underneath the ball and releasing it, usually into a corner of the goal. This shot is timed with a player's swimming stroke, and should flow comfortably from the dribble. Other inside water shots include the screw shot, which can likewise be executed directly from the stroke, and a spring shot where the player pushes the ball slightly into the water (but avoiding a "ball under" foul) and then allows a sudden release. While beginning players will have difficulty integrating these shots into their stroke, resulting in weaker shots as compared to outside water shots, inside water shots by experienced players have sufficient force to skip past the goalkeeper. One thing the shooter must watch is how close they get to the goalie because they can come out of the goal and take the ball.
Baulking (a kind of pump fake) is effective when using an outside water shot. The player gets in the position to shoot but stops halfway through. This puts the defense on edge and partially immobilizes the goalie by wasting his blocking lunge. This can be repeated until the player decides to release the ball. A good baulk takes a great amount of hand strength to palm the ball while mimicking the movement of a shot.
Inner tube water polo is a style of water polo with the important difference that players, excluding the goalkeeper, are required to float in inner tubes. By floating in an inner tube players expend less energy than traditional water polo players, not having to tread water. This allows casual players to enjoy water polo without undertaking the intense conditioning required for conventional water polo. This sport is predominantly played at universities by intramural coed teams. The sport's rules resemble those of water polo, however, with no governing body the rules vary across different leagues. For example, while the winner is determined by the team which scores the most goals, some leagues award one point for a male goal, and two points for a female goal, while others award one for either.
The game was invented in 1969 by now retired UC Davis associate athletic director of intramural sports and sport clubs, Gary Colberg. Noticing how much fun the water polo team was having, Mr. Colberg thought up the idea of using tubes so that people with no experience in water polo could still enjoy the game.
The modern game originated as a form of rugby football played in rivers and lakes in England and Scotland with a ball constructed of Indian rubber. This "water rugby" came to be called "water polo" based on the English pronunciation of the Balti word for ball, pulu,
Men's water polo at the Olympics was the among the first team sports introduced at the 1900 games (along with cricket, rugby, football (soccer), polo (with horses), rowing and tug of war). Women's water polo became an Olympic sport at the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games after political protests from the Australian women's team.
Every 2 to 4 years since 1973, a men's Water Polo World Championship is played together with the World Swimming Championship, under the auspices of FINA. Women's water polo was added in 1986. A second tournament series, the FINA Water Polo World Cup, has been held every other year since 1979. In 2002, FINA organized the sport's first international league, the FINA Water Polo World League.
Water polo federations, teams, & clubs
- ^ "The Technique of the Eggbeater Kick" in Coaches Infoservice
- ^ Richard Hunkler PhD, Water Polo Planet (April 1, 2006): Water Polo Is the Chess of Sports Retrieved December 12, 2006
- ^ FINA Water Polo Rules 2005-2009
- ^ See WP 20.17 for time of possession
- ^ FINA Water polo pool diagram
- ^ 'hole' or 'pit'
- ^ FINA Water Polo rules: WP 20.5 (Goalkeeper may touch pool bottom)
- ^ US Olympic Team News: 2004 Women's Water Polo World League Super Final
- ^ FINA Water Polo Rules, Section WP 7.3: Advantage Rule
- ^ Marion Alexander, Adrian Honish, Coaches' Infoservice, sports science information for coaches: The Water Polo Shot Retrieved December 17, 2006
- ^ Intramural Inner Tube Water Polo at Colleges
- ^ Gary Colberg: Inner tube water polo
- ^ International Olympic Committee Water Polo Site
- Hale (Ed.), Ralph (May 1986). The Complete Book of Water Polo: The U.S. Olympic Water Polo Team's Manual for Conditioning, Strategy, Tactics and Rules. Fireside, 160 pages. ISBN 0671555634.
- Jones, Bryan (December 2004). SportSpectator Water Polo Guide (Basic Waterpolo Rules and Strategies). DLH Publishing, 8 pages. ISBN 1879773074.
- Norris (Ed.), Jim (April 1990). The World Encyclopedia of Water Polo by James Roy Smith. Olive Press, 513 pages. ISBN 0933380054.
- Wiltens, Jim (August 1978). Individual Tactics in Water Polo. X-S Books, 87 pages. ISBN 0498020029.
- FINA Official Website
- FINA Water Polo Rules
- Water Polo Planet
- Water Polo World
- Water Polo On Topic
- Coaching Information on Water Polo
- Recruiting of international players by US college programs