- Great Painters
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
- Concept Cars
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

- Education
- Masterpieces of English Literature
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
- Christmas Traditions
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables


  1. Architecture of Windows NT
  2. AutoPlay
  3. Bill Gates
  4. BitLocker Drive Encryption
  5. Calibri
  6. Cambria
  7. Candara
  8. Chess Titans
  9. ClearType
  10. Consolas
  11. Constantia
  12. Control Panel
  13. Corbel
  14. Criticism of Windows Vista
  15. Dashboard
  16. Desktop Window Manager
  17. Development of Windows Vista
  18. Digital locker
  19. Digital rights management
  20. Extensible Application Markup Language
  21. Features new to Windows Vista
  22. Graphical user interface
  23. Group Shot
  24. ImageX
  25. INI file
  26. Internet Explorer
  27. Internet Information Services
  28. Kernel Transaction Manager
  29. List of Microsoft software codenames
  30. List of Microsoft Windows components
  31. List of WPF applications
  32. Luna
  33. Mahjong Titans
  34. Meiryo
  35. Microsoft Assistance Markup Language
  36. Microsoft Expression Blend
  37. Microsoft Expression Design
  38. Microsoft Gadgets
  39. Microsoft Software Assurance
  40. Microsoft Virtual PC
  41. Microsoft Visual Studio
  42. Microsoft Windows
  43. Microsoft Windows Services for UNIX
  44. MS-DOS
  45. MSN
  46. MUI
  47. Object manager
  48. Operating system
  49. Original Equipment Manufacturer
  50. Outlook Express
  51. Peer Name Resolution Protocol
  52. Protected Video Path
  53. Purble Place
  54. ReadyBoost
  55. Recovery Console
  56. Remote Desktop Protocol
  57. Security and safety features of Windows Vista
  58. Segoe UI
  59. User Account Control
  60. WIM image format
  61. Windows Aero
  62. Windows Anytime Upgrade
  63. Windows Calendar
  64. Windows CE
  65. Windows Communication Foundation
  66. Windows Disk Defragmenter
  67. Windows DreamScene
  68. Windows DVD Maker
  69. Windows Explorer
  70. Windows Fax and Scan
  71. Windows Forms
  72. Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs
  73. Windows Hardware Engineering Conference
  74. Windows Live
  75. Windows Live Gallery
  76. Windows Live Mail Desktop
  77. Windows Mail
  78. Windows Media Center
  79. Windows Media Player
  80. Windows Meeting Space
  81. Windows Mobile
  82. Windows Movie Maker
  83. Windows Photo Gallery
  84. Windows Presentation Foundation
  85. Windows Registry
  86. Windows Rights Management Services
  87. Windows Security Center
  88. Windows Server Longhorn
  89. Windows Server System
  90. Windows SharePoint Services
  91. Windows Shell
  92. Windows Sidebar
  93. Windows SideShow
  94. Windows System Assessment Tool
  95. Windows System Recovery
  96. Windows Update
  97. Windows Vienna
  98. Windows Vista
  99. Windows Vista editions and pricing
  100. Windows Vista Startup Process
  101. Windows Workflow Foundation
  102. Windows XP
  103. Windows XP Media Center Edition
  104. XML Paper Specification
  105. Yahoo Widget Engine

This article is from:

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: 

INI file

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


An initialization file, or INI file, is a configuration file that contains configuration data for Microsoft Windows based applications. Starting with Windows 95, the INI file format was superseded but not entirely replaced by a registry database in Microsoft operating systems. Recently, XML became the standard of choice for encoding configuration, as well as other kinds of data for many applications, but INI format is still in use, largely due to its simplicity.

Although made popular by Windows, INI files can be used on any system thanks to their flexibility. They allow a program to store configuration data, which can then be easily parsed and changed.

File Format

A typical INI file might look like this:

[section1]; some comment on section1var1 = abcvar2 = 451 [section2]; another commentvar1 = 123var2 = dfg


This describes the elements of the INI file format:

  • Sections: Section declarations start with '[' and end with ']' as in [section1] and [section2] above. And sections start with section declarations.
  • Parameters: The "var1 = abc" above is an example of a parameter (also known as an item). Parameters are made up of a key ('var1'), equals sign ('='), and a value ('abc').
  • Comments: All the lines starting with a semicolon (';') are assumed to be comments, and are ignored.


The format of INI files is not well defined. Many programs interpret their structure differently than the basic structure that was defined in the above example. The following is a basic list of some of the differences:

  • Quoted values: The Microsoft Windows implementation (see: GetPrivateProfileString in MSDN) will remove quotation marks (apostrophes, backquotes and double-quotes) that surround INI file values.
  • Comments: Programs like Samba accept either ';' or '#' as comments. Comments can be added after parameters with several formats.
  • Backslashes: Adding a backslash '\' allows you to continue the value from one line to another. Some formats also allow various escapes with a '\', such as '\n' for newline.
  • Duplicate parameters: Most of the time, you can't have two parameters with the same name in one section. Therefore one can say that parameters are local to the section. Although this behavior can vary between implementations, it is advisable to stick with this rule.
  • Duplicate sections: If you have more than one section with the same name then the last section overrides the previous one. (Some implementations will merge them if they have different keys.)
  • Some implementations allow ":" in place of "=".

See also

  • sysconfig

External links

Detailed Specifications

Since there is no real standard detailed specification, the following is a list of links to unofficial ones:

  • INI grammar LL(1) grammar used by aini2plist, an INI file to plist converter

Programming Libraries

The following is a listing of programming libraries for INI files:

  • GetPot: Configuration File Parser. Providing also a simple LISP-like language for substitution, concatination, and numerical operations inside INI-Files.
  • ini4j: Open Source Java Ini File Reader
  • ConfigObj: A pure Python module for reading and writing INI files, with an extended syntax for nested sections
  • Nini: Configuration library for the Microsoft .NET Framework and Mono development platform.
  • SimpleIni: C++ INI configuration file library. Provides easy cross-platform (Windows/Linux/Unix) read and write access to INI configuration files. Fully Unicode/MBCS/UTF-8 aware on all platforms.
  • iniParser: stand-alone INI parser library in ANSI C
  • LeoINI: C++ INI parser
  • ConfigParser: Python's standard INI parsing module.
  • Config::IniFiles: Perl INI parser
  • inifile : Tcl INI file library
  • parse-ini-file : PHP INI parser
  • SDL_Config : C/C++ INI parser, connected with SDL
  • program_options : C++ - Boost's toolkit for processing configuration data given on command line, in files and other sources, from Vladimir Prus.
  • inifile - INI configuration file command line editor for use with Windows and MS-DOS batch files.
  • IniFile : Open source Java INI file reader and writer
Retrieved from ""