WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
?????????

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. 6/8 time
  2. A (note)
  3. Abc notation
  4. Accidental
  5. Articulation
  6. B (note)
  7. Bar
  8. Beam
  9. Braille Music
  10. Breath mark
  11. Canntaireachd
  12. Chord
  13. Cinquillo
  14. Clef
  15. Coda
  16. Copyist
  17. Da capo
  18. Dal segno
  19. Dotted note
  20. Double whole note
  21. Drum tablature
  22. Dynamics
  23. Eight note
  24. Ekphonetic notation
  25. Fermata
  26. Figured bass
  27. Fingering
  28. Flat
  29. Ghost note
  30. Glissando
  31. Gongche notation
  32. Grace note
  33. Grand staff
  34. Graphic notation
  35. GUIDO music notation
  36. Guido of Arezzo
  37. Halfnote
  38. Harmony
  39. Hundred twenty-eighth note
  40. Italian musical terms used in English
  41. Kepatihan
  42. Key
  43. Keyboard tablature
  44. Key signature
  45. Klavarskribo
  46. Leadsheet
  47. Ledger line
  48. Legato
  49. Letter notation
  50. Ligature
  51. Marcato
  52. Mensural notation
  53. Mensurstriche
  54. Metre
  55. Modern musical symbols
  56. Musical notation
  57. Musical scale
  58. Musical terminology
  59. Music engraving
  60. Music theory
  61. Nashville notation
  62. Natural sign
  63. Neume
  64. Note
  65. Note value
  66. Numbered musical notation
  67. Numerical sight-singing
  68. Octave
  69. Ornament
  70. Parsonscode
  71. Partbook
  72. Pizzicato
  73. Portamento
  74. Prolation
  75. Qinpu
  76. Quarter note
  77. Rastrum
  78. Rehearsal letter
  79. Repeat
  80. Rest
  81. Rhythm
  82. Rythmic mode
  83. Rhythmic notation
  84. Saptak
  85. Scientific pitch notation
  86. Shape note
  87. Sharp
  88. Sheet music
  89. Sixteenth note
  90. Sixty-fourth note
  91. Slash notation
  92. Slur
  93. Sound painting
  94. Staccatissimo
  95. Staccato
  96. Staff
  97. Swung note
  98. Tablature
  99. Tacet
  100. Tempo
  101. Tenuto
  102. Thirty-second note
  103. Tie
  104. Time signature
  105. Time unit box system (TUBS)
  106. Tongan music notation
  107. Triple metre
  108. Tuplet
  109. Unfigured bass
  110. Virtual music score
  111. Vocal score
  112. Whole note
  113. Znamennoe singing
 



MUSICAL NOTATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numbered_musical_notation

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Numbered musical notation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

The numbered musical notation, better known as jianpu (Traditional Chinese: 簡譜, Simplified Chinese: 简谱, pinyin: jiǎnpǔ; literally "simplified notation") in Chinese, is a musical notation system widely used among the Chinese people. Some people call it the numeric notation or numerical notation, but it is not to be confused with the integer notation. It is also known as Ziffersystem, meaning "number system" or "cipher system" in German. It should be noticed that some other unrelated musical notation systems are also called cipher notations.

The same system or very similar systems are used to some extent in some European countries, and are popular in some Asian countries. This article first describes the Chinese jianpu in some detail, then describes its possible variations.


 

Numbered notation described

Musical note

Numbers 1 to 7 represents the musical notes. They always correspond to the diatonic major scale. For example, in the key of C major, their relationship with the notes and the solfege is shown below:

Note:     C   D   E   F   G   A   BSolfege:  do  re  mi  fa  sol la  tiNotation: 1   2   3   4   5   6   7

Octave change

Dots above or below a musical note raise or lower it to other octaves. The number of dots equals the number of octaves. For example, "6" with a dot below is at an octave lower than "6". Musical scales can thus be written like this:

                                    .major scale:          1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 natural minor scale:  6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6                       

Note length

The plain number represents a quarter note. Underlines shorten it. One underline represents an eighth note, two underlines represent a sixteenth note, and so on. Notice how the underline imitates the number of flags in the standard notation. The underlines may even be joined together like beaming in the standard notation. Dashes after a note lengthen it, each dash by the length of a quarter note.

A dot after the plain or underlined note works increases its length by half, and two dots increases by three-quarter, similar to the standard notation. The rule is different for notes longer than the quarter note. An additional dot after the dashes actually means half the length of a quarter note.

whole:   1 - - -  dotted whole:   1 - - - - -  double dotted: 1 - - - - - - half:    1 -      dotted half:    1 - -        double dotted: 1 - -  quarter: 1        dotted quarter: 1           double dotted: 1 eighth:  1        dotted eighth:  1           double dotted: 1 16th:    1         =

Musical rest

The number "0" represents the musical rest. The rules for length is similar to that of the note, except that it is customary to repeat "0" instead of adding dashes for rests longer than a quarter rest. Unlike the standard notation, there is no single symbol for the bar rest. The bar rest of 3/4 time is "| 0 0 0 |" and the bar rest of 4/4 time is "| 0 0 0 0 |".

Undetermined pitch

The rhythm of percussion instruments of undetermined pitch is usually represented by "X" or "x" using rules similar to that of the musical note. For example, a common clap pattern used in cheers can be written like this:

4/4                              > >Clap: | X  X  X X X  | X X X X 0 X X ||

Bar line

The end of a measure is marked with a vertical line. Two vertical lines represents the double bar line, and usually also the end bar line, though the thin and thick line variation resembling the standard notation is also used. Repeat signs also resemble the standard notation.

Time signature

The time signature is written as a fraction: 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, etc. It is usually placed after the key signature. Change of time signature within the piece of music may be marked in-line or above the line of music.

Accidentals and key signature

The notation uses a movable Do(1) system. The key signature defines the pitch of "1". So "1=C" means "C major". Minor keys are based on the natural minor or the Aeolian mode, and the key signature defines the pitch of "6". So "6=C" means "C minor". Naturally, the Dorian mode of D should be marked as "2=D". Some people prefer to write "Key: C" or "Key: Cm" instead.

The same accidentals in the standard notation are used, and as in common practice, an accidental is placed before the notes "1 2 3 4 5 6 7" to raise or lower the pitch and placed after the note names "C D E F G A B", which are used for key signature and chord markings in the numbered system.

There is one caution about the use of the accidentals. In the standard notation, the C minor has flats on B, E, and A in the key signature. So when we write the harmonic minor scale, we put a natural before the B♭ for the leading note. In the numbered notation, however, the leading note is always "♯5", because the system itself does not flat the "5" note.

Tie, slur, and other marks

Ties and slurs are curves resembling that in the standard notation, although they are always written above the music line in numbered notation. Expression marks are written similarly. Special attention has to be paid on the staccato dot since it looks like the octave changer. It is either represented by a bolder dot further away from the music line or by the staccatissimo sign instead, which is an inverted triangle.

Variations

In some versions of the numbered musical notation, underlines indicating note length are written above the note instead. Ties and slurs may be written below the music line.

In some versions, octave change is represented in a different way. Instead of dots above or below the numbers, a horizontal line is drawn and the number is written on, above, or below the line.

History and Usage

The invention of the system is usually attributed to Jean-Jacques Rousseau in his work presented to the French Academy of Sciences in 1742. However, due to its straightforward correspondence to the standard notation, it is possible that many other claims of independent invention are also true.

Although the system is used to some extent in Germany, France, and Holland, and more by the Mennonites in Russia, it has never become popular in the Western world. See the external links for more information.

The system is very popular among some Asian people. Some Chinese people can sight read jianpu but not the standard notation. Some Chinese hymnals and Cantopop song books are published exclusively in jianpu. Many modern Chinese-English bilingual hymnals add jianpu of the melody above the standard notation, and make use of it in the index for the songs.

An index using the numbered notation allows us to find a song if we remember the tune but not the name. To appreciate that, we can look at an example. A children's song book may have an index like this:

|1  1  |1  23  |  Row, row, row your boat |1 1 5 5 |6 6 5 - |  Twinkle, twinkle little star |1 2 3 1 |1 2 3 1 |  Frere Jacques

A reason of its popularity among Chinese is that jianpu fits in with the Chinese music tradition. It is a natural extension and unification of the gongche notation widely used in ancient China for recording music. Gongche uses a number of characters to indicate the musical notes, and jianpu can be seen as using numbers to replace those characters.

Compared to the standard notation, the numbered notation is very compact for just the melody line. It is even possible to transcribe music in between the lines of text. Transcribing harmony can be done by vertically stacking the notes, but the advantage of compactness decreases as the harmony becomes more complex.

Examples

The two images below illustrate how the same piece of music is written using the standard notation and the numbered notation.

The hymn "Amazing Grace" written in standard notation.
Enlarge
The hymn "Amazing Grace" written in standard notation.
The hymn "Amazing Grace" written in numbered musical notation.
Enlarge
The hymn "Amazing Grace" written in numbered musical notation.

External links

  • A page in The Life and Work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau shows his published work.
  • Ziffersystem (Numerical Musical Notation) in the Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online.
  • Canaan Hymnal (Simplified Chinese) is an example of a Chinese hymn book written in jianpu.
  • Can You Shake It? The Angklung of Southeast Asia has examples of cipher notation used in South Asian music.
  • Magith is a shareware to create music using numbered musical notation.
  • S-Music Alpha version is a freeware editor for simplified music notation.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numbered_musical_notation"