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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Alligator
  2. Alpaca
  3. Anaconda
  4. Ant
  5. Anteater
  6. Antelope
  7. Baboon
  8. Badger
  9. Bat
  10. Bear
  11. Bee
  12. Boa
  13. Butterfly
  14. Camel
  15. Canary
  16. Cat
  17. Cheeta
  18. Chicken
  19. Chimpanzee
  20. Cobra
  21. Cod
  22. Condor
  23. Cormorant
  24. Cow
  25. Crab
  26. Cricket
  27. Crocodile
  28. Crow
  29. Deer
  30. Dog
  31. Dolphin
  32. Donkey
  33. Dove
  34. Duck
  35. Eagle
  36. Elephant
  37. Emu
  38. Falcon
  39. Ferret
  40. Fly
  41. Fox
  42. Gazelle
  43. Giraffe
  44. Goat
  45. Goose
  46. Gorilla
  47. Hare
  48. Hedgehog
  49. Heron
  50. Hippopotamus
  51. Horse
  52. Hyena
  53. Ibis
  54. Jackal
  55. Kangaroo
  56. Kingfisher
  57. Koala
  58. Leopard
  59. Lion
  60. Llama
  61. Lobster
  62. Louse
  63. Mantodea
  64. Mink
  65. Mole
  66. Mongoose
  67. Mosquito
  68. Mule
  69. Nightingale
  70. Octopus
  71. Opossum
  72. Orangutan
  73. Ostrich
  74. Otter
  75. Owl
  76. Panda
  77. Parrot
  78. Partridge
  79. Peacock (Peafowl)
  80. Pelican
  81. Penguin
  82. Pheasant
  83. Pig
  84. Pigeon
  85. Prawn
  86. Puffin
  87. Quail
  88. Rabbit
  89. Reindeer
  90. Rhinoceros
  91. Salmon
  92. Seagull
  93. Seal
  94. Shark
  95. Sheep
  96. Shrimp
  97. Silk worm
  98. Skunk
  99. Sparrow
  100. Spider
  101. Squid
  102. Squirrel
  103. Stork
  104. Swallow
  105. Swan
  106. Tarantula
  107. Termite
  108. Tiger
  109. Toucan
  110. Tuna
  111. Turkey
  112. Turtle
  113. Violet-ear
  114. Vulture
  115. Walrus
  116. Wasp
  117. Whale
  118. Wolf
  119. Woodpecker
  120. Yak
  121. Zebra
 



ANIMALS
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squid

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Squid

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Squid are a large, diverse group of marine cephalopods. Like all cephalopods, squid are distinguished by having a distinct head, bilateral symmetry, a mantle, and arms; squid, like cuttlefish, have eight arms and two tentacles arranged in pairs. These are a type of muscular hydrostat and have suckers. If cut off, the tentacles do not grow back. Squid can blend in with their surroundings to avoid predators.

Squid are exclusively carnivorous, feeding on fish and other invertebrates. Squid usually have two elongated tentacles especially for the capture of food. They are voracious, fast-moving and fast-growing predators, and can be hugely abundant in productive seas. Most live for one year, dying after spawning, although some of the giant species may live for two years or more.

Caribbean Reef Squid or Sepioteuthis sepioidea is part of the Loliginidae family.
Enlarge
Caribbean Reef Squid or Sepioteuthis sepioidea is part of the Loliginidae family.

They also have chromatophores embedded in their skin and the ability to expel ink if threatened. Being coleoids means that their bony structure is internalized (in the octopus it is nonexistent); in squid there is a single flat bone plate buried within the soft tissue structure. They have a specialized foot called the siphon, or hyponome, that enables them to move by expelling water under pressure. Squid are the most skilled of the coleoids at this form of motion.

The mouth of the squid is equipped with a sharp horny beak made of chitin, used to kill and tear prey into manageable pieces. Captured whales often have squid beaks in their stomachs, the beak being the only indigestible part of the squid. The mouth contains the radula (the rough tongue common to all mollusks except bivalvia and aplacophora).

Squid are members of the class Cephalopoda, subclass Coleoidea, order Teuthida, of which there are two major suborders, Myopsina and Oegopsina (including the giant squids like Architeuthis dux). Teuthida is the largest of the cephalopod orders, edging out the octopuses (order Octopoda) for total number of species, with 298 classified into 28 families.

The order Teuthida is a member of the superorder Decapodiformes (from the Greek for "ten legs"). Two other orders of decapodiform cephalopods are also called squid, although they are taxonomically distinct from Teuthida and differ recognizably in their gross anatomical features. They are the bobtail squid of order Sepiolida and the Ram's Horn Squid of the single species order Spirulida. The Vampire Squid, however, is more closely related to the octopuses than to any of the squid.

Giant squid in the Hetzel edition of Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea
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Giant squid in the Hetzel edition of Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea

Squid have two gills, sometimes called ctenidia, and an extensive closed circulatory system consisting of a systemic heart and two gill hearts.

The majority of squid are no more than 60 cm long, although the giant squid may reach 13 m in length. In 2003, however, a large specimen of an abundant but poorly understood species, Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni (the Colossal Squid) was discovered. This species may grow to 14 m in length, making it the largest invertebrate in the world. It also possesses the largest eyes in the animal kingdom. Giant squids are featured in literature and folklore, with a strongly frightening connotation.

Dried and packaged squid
Enlarge
Dried and packaged squid
Breaded, deep-fried squid are often served with a variety of sauces
Enlarge
Breaded, deep-fried squid are often served with a variety of sauces

A live giant squid was observed for the first time on September 30, 2004, by two Japanese scientists: Tsunemi Kubodera of the National Science Museum (of Japan) and Kyoichi Mori of the Ogasawara Whale Watching Association. From their initial observations, the scientists concluded that giant squid appear to be more aggressive than previously thought. A 5.5 meter long tentacle was retrieved (accidentally) from the creature and DNA tests compared with other giant squid specimens previously washed up on shore confirmed that indeed they had observed a live giant squid. The scientists estimated the total size of the squid to be eight meters.

More recently in early 2006 Archie, a giant squid measuring 8.62m (28ft), was caught off the coast of the Falkland Islands by a trawler. The squid now resides in a glass tank, filled to the brim with preservative solution, and is one of 22 million specimens that can be seen as part of the behind-the-scenes Darwin Centre tour of the Natural History Museum in London.

Squid are popular as food in cuisines as widely separated as Korean and Italian. In fish markets and restaurants in English-speaking countries, it is often known by the name calamari, from the Greek-Italian word for these animals. Individual species of squid are found abundantly in certain areas and provide large catches for fisheries.

Classification

These squid are being dried in a harbor after being fished
Enlarge
These squid are being dried in a harbor after being fished
Giant Squid, Melb Aquarium
Enlarge
Giant Squid, Melb Aquarium
  • CLASS CEPHALOPODA
    • Subclass Nautiloidea: nautilus
    • Subclass Coleoidea: squid, octopus, cuttlefish
      • Superorder Octopodiformes
      • Superorder Decapodiformes
        • Order Spirulida: Ram's Horn Squid
        • Order Sepiida: cuttlefish
        • Order Sepiolida: bobtail squid
        • Order Teuthida: squid
          • Suborder Myopsina
            • Family Loliginidae: inshore, calamari, and grass squid
          • Suborder Oegopsina
            • Family Ancistrocheiridae: Sharpear Enope Squid
            • Family Architeuthidae: giant squid
            • Family Bathyteuthidae
            • Family Batoteuthidae: Bush-club Squid
            • Family Brachioteuthidae
            • Family Chiroteuthidae
            • Family Chtenopterygidae: comb-finned squid
            • Family Cranchiidae: glass squid
            • Family Cycloteuthidae
            • Family Enoploteuthidae
            • Family Gonatidae: armhook squid
            • Family Histioteuthidae: jewel squid
            • Family Joubiniteuthidae: Joubin's Squid
            • Family Lepidoteuthidae: Grimaldi Scaled Squid
            • Family Lycoteuthidae
            • Family Magnapinnidae: bigfin squid
            • Family Mastigoteuthidae: whip-lash squid
            • Family Neoteuthidae
            • Family Octopoteuthidae
            • Family Ommastrephidae: flying squid
            • Family Onychoteuthidae: hooked squid
            • Family Pholidoteuthidae
            • Family Promachoteuthidae
            • Family Psychroteuthidae: Glacial Squid
            • Family Pyroteuthidae: fire squid
            • Family Thysanoteuthidae: rhomboid squid
            • Family incertae sedis (uncertain group)
            • Family Walvisteuthidae

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Squid
Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Squid
  • [1] The Cephalopod Page
  • TONMO.com Cephalopod Information Center; Giant Squid expert Dr. Steve O'Shea is on staff.
  • Squidcam from New Zealand's The Science Site (very popular site, viewer operated camera on live baby squid).
  • CephBase: Teuthida
  • MSN Encarta - Squid
  • Scientific American - Giant Squid
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squid"

 



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